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International Monetary Fund
The report and its recommendations should also be careful to not impinge upon areas that are still unfolding, such as the RST, crisis response, and CD provision, to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts and ensure that a coherent and evenhanded framework is in place. I offer qualified and/or partial support to the recommendations, as discussed below, to serve better our SDS members.
International Monetary Fund

-supported programs (IEO 2022) . Implementing the RST taking into account SDS needs and constraints. This would entail (i) exploiting the use of CMAPs, and (ii) ensuring that the requirement to pair the RST with a UCT-quality program does not deter SDS use and lowering the administrative burden of UCT-quality programs by, for example, providing ground support . Raising access limits under for Emergency Financing (EF) instruments for dealing with large natural disasters (LNDs) for countries with robust macroeconomic frameworks and governance standards . I partially support

International Monetary Fund

change in their economic behavior. Such drastic changes in the political environment could, however, tip respondents’ willingness to disclose employment in a shadow economy business. Second, the method assumes that each sector’s output is proportional to the number of employees. Not distinguishing between capital-intensive and labor-intensive sectors may bias the results toward the changes in labor-intensive sectors. Finally, the SDS uses some ad-hoc information and, sometimes, makes adjustments that are purely judgmental and difficult to control. Hence, although the

Johanna Tiedemann, Veronica Piatkov, Dinar Prihardini, Juan Carlos Benitez, and Ms. Aleksandra Zdzienicka

, IMF , NDCs, ND-GAIN, UNICEF, World Bank (WDI, HDI), WHO. Annex 5. Tax Capacity Estimates using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) This annex discusses briefly the methodology used to estimated tax capacity in 19 SDS using an SFA (Martinez-Vazquez and others 2013) and provides the main results. The methodological approach follows Langford and Ohlenberg (2016) in the sense that we use a time varying true random effects model which takes into account random shocks, accounts for heterogeneity within the panel, and distinguishes between invariable or

Johanna Tiedemann, Veronica Piatkov, Dinar Prihardini, Juan Carlos Benitez, and Ms. Aleksandra Zdzienicka
Small Developing States (SDS) face substantial challenges in achieving sustainable development. Many of these challenges relate to the small size and limited diversification of their economies. SDS are also among the most vulnerable countries to the impact of climate change and natural disasters. Meeting SDS sustainable development goals goes hand-in-hand with building their climate resilience. But the additional costs to meet development and resilience objectives are substantial and difficult to finance. This work adapts the IMF SDG Costing methodology to capture the unique characteristics and challenges of climate-vulnerable SDS. It also zooms into financing options, estimating domestic tax potential and discussing the possibility of accessing ‘climate funds.’
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper reviews the financial sector development in Georgia in recent years, and investigates why it has lagged behind economic development, as well as developments in more advanced transition economies. The paper briefly reviews recent financial sector development in Georgia, comparing it with developments in its neighboring countries in the Caucasus, the seven poorest countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS-7), the Baltics, and central and eastern Europe. The paper also analyzes possible factors constraining financial intermediation in Georgia and in some of the CIS countries more generally.
International Monetary Fund
This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) provides a review of Georgia’s data dissemination practices against the IMF’s General Data Dissemination System (GDDS), complemented by an in-depth assessment of the quality of the national accounts, consumer price index, producer price index, government finance, monetary, and balance-of-payments statistics. Georgia has made good progress in improving its statistics in a number of areas. Nonetheless, substantial shortcomings are present in some statistical practices and databases. Some of these shortcomings could be addressed with current resources.
International Monetary Fund

unadjusted source data. No seasonal adjustment of the estimates is done. 3.2.2 Other statistical procedures (e.g., data adjustments and transformations, and statistical analysis) employ sound statistical techniques The estimated share of the nonobserved economy in the Georgian 2001 GDP is about 33 percent. The SDS makes significant efforts to ensure the exhaustiveness of the GDP estimates. In order that all components of the nonobserved economy are included, the SDS uses the supply and use tables, the data from the household budget survey, other SDS surveys and