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Ms. Mercedes Garcia-Escribano, Ms. Tewodaj Mogues, Marian Moszoro, and Mauricio Soto
South Asia has experienced significant progress in improving human and physical capital over the past few decades. Within the region, India has become a global economic powerhouse with enormous development potential ahead. To foster human and economic development, India has shown a strong commitment to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Agenda. This paper focuses on the medium-term development challenges that South Asia, and in particular India, faces to ensure substantial progress along the SDGs by 2030. We estimate the additional spending needed in critical areas of human capital (health and education) and physical capital (water and sanitation, electricity, and roads). We document progress on these five sectors for India relative to other South Asian countries and discuss implications for policy and reform.
Delphine Prady and Mouhamadou Sy

-Mail Address: DPrady@imf.org ; MSy@imf.org Contents Abstract I. Introduction II. Development Outcomes and Spending Estimates in Sub-Saharan African Countries III. Benin And Rwanda Case-Studies IV. Going Forward: Operationalizing Costing Estimates References Boxes 1. Costing Methodology in Five SDG Sectors 2. Benin: The Universal Health Insurance System Figures 1. Extreme Poverty and Life Expectancy at Birth in Sub-Saharan Africa 2. SDG Composite Index and Human Development Index, by Regions 3. Sub-Saharan Africa Performance in Selected

Ms. Mercedes Garcia-Escribano, Ms. Tewodaj Mogues, Marian Moszoro, and Mauricio Soto

-Group and Regional Comparison 15. India: Electric Power Consumption, 2019 and Projections for 2030 16. India: Installed Capacity, 2019 17. India: Main Road Statistics, 2019 and Projections 18. India: Spending in 2030 in Selected SDG Sectors Tables 1. India: Estimated Health Spending Needed for High Performance in Health SDG 2. India: Additional Education Spending for High Performance in Education SDG 3. India: Current and Target Installed Capacity Mix Appendices: Methodology and Data by Sector 1. Health Care 2. Education 3. Water and Sanitation 4

Ms. Dora Benedek, Mr. Edward R Gemayel, Abdelhak S Senhadji, and Alexander F. Tieman

. Nigeria Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country and its largest economy, faces serious development gaps. Over the past decades, poor governance and a weak institutional structure have hindered the transformation of large crude oil windfalls into high and sustainable growth and development. Public spending on physical and human capital has been inefficient and insufficient to meet the needs of its fast-growing population. Despite progress in social and economic indicators, outcomes are well below its peers in critical SDG sectors ( Figure A5 ). Achieving its SDGs by

Ms. Dora Benedek, Mr. Edward R Gemayel, Abdelhak S Senhadji, and Alexander F. Tieman

focus is on recurrent and investment spending in the five SDG sectors that Gaspar and others (2019) argue are at the core of sustainable and inclusive growth and for which a costing exercise has been carried out: education, health, roads, electricity, and water and sanitation. Although the full financing needs to achieve all 17 SDGs are not covered, these sectors are key for development and represent a large share of government outlays. 7. More generally, policymakers can use the framework to help build realistic development strategies and assess the long

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

established taskforces to monitor progress towards the SDGs and Pakistan underwent a Voluntary National Review (VNR) in 2019 to take stock of its progress. 2. While Pakistan has made progress in some areas, its current performance in critical SDG sectors lags that of its peers . The 2019 VNR highlighted progress in several areas, including poverty and child stunting, transparency and accountability, and gender equality and women’s empowerment. However, Pakistan’s current performance in education, health, electricity, and water and sanitation—as measured by the SDG indices

Ms. Dora Benedek, Mr. Edward R Gemayel, Mr. Abdelhak S Senhadji, and Alexander F. Tieman
The COVID-19 pandemic hit countries’ development agendas hard. The ensuing recession has pushed millions into extreme poverty and has shrunk government resources available for spending on achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This Staff Discussion Note assesses the current state of play on funding SDGs in five key development areas: education, health, roads, electricity, and water and sanitation, using a newly developed dynamic macroeconomic framework.
Delphine Prady and Mouhamadou Sy
This paper documents the additional spending that is required for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to achieve meaningful progress in SDGs by 2030. Benin and Rwanda are presented in detail through case studies. The main lessons are: i) average additional spending across SSA is significant, at 19 percent of GDP in 2030; ii) countries must prioritize their development objectives according to their capacity to deliver satisfactory outcomes, iii) financing strategies should articulate multiple sources given the scale of additional spending, and iv) strong national ownership of SDGs is key and should be reflected in long-term development plans and medium-term policy commitments.
Delphine Prady and Mouhamadou Sy

). Estimates correspond to the additional total expenditure required in the year 2030 compared to what countries spend in 2016; they are reported as percentage points of 2030 GDP and refer to total expenditure, i.e., public and private. 7 Since high performing countries with comparable levels of GDP per capita are used as benchmarks for each country, costing estimates assume high spending efficiency and can be interpreted as a lower spending floor needed to achieve the benchmarked progress in SDGs. Box 1. Costing Methodology in Five SDG Sectors The methodology

Fernanda Brollo, Emine Hanedar, and Mr. Sébastien Walker

to take stock of its progress. While Pakistan has made progress in some areas, its current performance in critical SDG sectors lags that of its peers. The 2019 VNR highlighted progress in several areas, including poverty and child stunting, transparency and accountability, and gender equality and women’s empowerment. However, Pakistan’s current performance in education, health, electricity, and water and sanitation—as measured by the SDG indices of each sector—is below the median for Emerging Market and Developing Economies (EMDEs) ( Figure 1 ). Pakistan