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International Monetary Fund
The quota database has been updated by one year through 2014. Overall, the results of the update continue the broad trends observed in previous updates, but the shifts between the main country groups are generally smaller. Using the current quota formula, the calculated quota share of Emerging Market and Developing Countries (EMDCs) as a group increases by 0.6 percentage points relative to the 2015 update to 49.3 percent, which is about half the increase in the last update. The paper takes stock of recent discussions on the quota formula, including the outcome of the Quota Formula Review in 2013 and subsequent discussions in the context of the annual quota data updates. It also updates the illustrative simulations of possible reforms of the quota formula presented previously, using the latest data. These simulations have sought to capture possible reforms that would be broadly in line with the conclusions of the Quota Formula Review and Directors’ guidance is sought on the relative merits of these reforms and the most productive areas for future work. Download Quota Data: Updated IMF Quota Formula Variables - September 2016
International Monetary Fund

The quota database has been updated by one year through 2014. Overall, the results of the update continue the broad trends observed in previous updates, but the shifts between the main country groups are generally smaller. Using the current quota formula, the calculated quota share of Emerging Market and Developing Countries (EMDCs) as a group increases by 0.6 percentage points relative to the 2015 update to 49.3 percent, which is about half the increase in the last update. The paper takes stock of recent discussions on the quota formula, including the outcome of the Quota Formula Review in 2013 and subsequent discussions in the context of the annual quota data updates. It also updates the illustrative simulations of possible reforms of the quota formula presented previously, using the latest data. These simulations have sought to capture possible reforms that would be broadly in line with the conclusions of the Quota Formula Review and Directors’ guidance is sought on the relative merits of these reforms and the most productive areas for future work. Download Quota Data: Updated IMF Quota Formula Variables - September 2016

Mr. Paul A Austin, Mr. Marco Marini, Alberto Sanchez, Chima Simpson-Bell, and James Tebrake

. Assume that these places are restaurants operating in the same geographic area. In week 1, we note that Place A has 1000 reviews, Place B has 500 reviews, Place C has 500 reviews, Place D has 100 reviews, Place E has 400 reviews, and it is temporarily closed. Table 8. Construction of Operational Indicator-Example Week 1 – Initial Status: Places A, B, C, and D operational Business Reviews Share of Reviews Business Status Operational Indicator A 1000 40 Operational B 500 20 Operational C 500 20

International Monetary Fund
Motivation and approach. Last year’s major reforms of the Fund’s lending instruments, together with the commitment to treble its resources, made a significant contribution to global stabilization as Fund lending created room for policy accommodation and helped countries weather the worst of the crisis. While these reforms have yielded positive results, it is appropriate to ask—as the IMFC has—whether there is scope to build on this experience. This paper tries to answer this question, including by drawing on the lessons of the crisis, as perceived by policymakers, market participants, and academic observers, with whom Fund staff has consulted extensively. While every effort has been made to explore the pros and cons of various reform options neutrally, some options are clearly more evolutionary (e.g., those building on last year’s headline introduction of the Flexible Credit Line or FCL), while others are of a more radical nature (e.g., Fund provision of pure insurance payouts or collateralized lending). This paper focuses on the former, covering the latter set of ideas in a supplement. Once the Executive Board has had a chance to comment on all options, a more defined and specific set of proposals could be developed by staff for further consideration.
Mr. Paul A Austin, Mr. Marco Marini, Alberto Sanchez, Chima Simpson-Bell, and James Tebrake
As the pandemic heigthened policymakers’ demand for more frequent and timely indicators to assess economic activities, traditional data collection and compilation methods to produce official indicators are falling short—triggering stronger interest in real time data to provide early signals of turning points in economic activity. In this paper, we examine how data extracted from the Google Places API and Google Trends can be used to develop high frequency indicators aligned to the statistical concepts, classifications, and definitions used in producing official measures. The approach is illustrated by use of Google data-derived indicators that predict well the GDP trajectories of selected countries during the early stage of COVID-19. To this end, we developed a methodological toolkit for national compilers interested in using Google data to enhance the timeliness and frequency of economic indicators.
International Monetary Fund

pricing declined. Detailed data also indicate an increase in the share of conditions that are related to financial sector regulation and supervision, in contrast to a decline in the share of conditions related to the restructuring and privatization of financial institutions (see Tables 1a and 1b ). Figure 3. Classification of Structural Conditions by Broad Economic Sector, 2002-09 (Grouped by year of review, share of all conditions, in percent) Source: MONA database. Notes: PRGF = Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility; GRA refers to programs under

International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept., International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, &, and Review Department
The paper revisits the two-pillar framework for assessing the adequacy of Fund resources. Responding to Directors suggestions, the quantitative pillar is updated to include alternative assumptions and to provide a longer-term perspective on likely resource needs. While quantitative estimates are generally somewhat lower after factoring in the alternative assumptions, these reductions are more than outweighed when the analysis is extended through the middle of the next decade, recognizing that the outcome of the 15th Review will likely determine permanent Fund resources through at least the middle of the next decade. The updated qualitative pillar analysis highlights reforms since the global financial crisis and discusses uncertainties in the global environment. It also provides an assessment of the general impact of the various qualitative considerations. Taken together, the two pillars continue to make a case for at least maintaining existing Fund resources. Against this background, the simulations in the paper cover three illustrative sizes for quota increases (50, 75, and 100 percent), centered on broadly maintaining Fund resources, assuming the New Arrangements to Borrow (NAB) is maintained at its current level and Bilateral Borrowing Agreements (BBAs) expire.
International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

compared to the last review. Regional concentration has increased only slightly since the last review. Share of RFIs in loan portfolio : As noted above, the share of the credit portfolio accounted for by emergency financing instruments remains elevated, but has risen only marginally since the last review. Given that repurchases are bunched in FY 2024–25, that RFIs are not subject to ex-post/upper credit tranche (UCT) conditionality, and that the fallout from COVID-19 still remains uncertain, associated risks remain high. Global outlook and COVID-19 related

International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.
Precautionary balances are a key element of the Fund’s multilayered framework to mitigate financial risks. Overall financial risks remain elevated but have not increased significantly since the last review. Staff proposes to leave the medium-term target of SDR 25 billion, and the minimum floor of SDR 15 billion, unchanged at this time. With the projected increase in lending income, the pace of reserve accumulation is expected to remain adequate relative to the medium-term indicative target. The paper also reviews policy factors discussed in recent Board meetings that affect the level and accumulation of reserves.