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International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Preparing for Automation: The Case of Bangladesh 1 Around 60 percent of the labor force in Bangladesh is employed in industries at a high risk of automation. Furthermore, automation in advanced economies will lead to the “onshoring” of manufacturing activities that were offshored to other countries. This is a critical time for Bangladesh, and every effort must be made to upgrade the RMG sector and keep it competitive. This includes increasing the technology used in factories, upgrading the skills of workers, and improving logistics, including transportation

Mr. Montfort Mlachila and Yongzheng Yang

Front Matter Page Policy Development and Review Department Authorized for distribution by Hans Peter Lankes Contents I. Introduction II. Textile and Clothing Industry in Bangladesh III. Evaluating Competitiveness A. Growth Record and Trade Preferences B. The U.S. Market: Who Is More Restricted? C. The EU Market: EBA Is Not Sufficient D. Performance During the Transition IV. Domestic Supply Constraints A. Structural Rigidities B. Policy-Induced Constraints C. Privileges Enjoyed by the RMG Sector V. Estimating the

Mr. Montfort Mlachila and Yongzheng Yang

. Figure 1. Proportion of T&C Exports in Total Exports, 2002 Source: WTO and IMF staff estimates. This paper evaluates the impact on the Bangladeshi economy of the phase-out of textile and clothing quotas, with a particular focus on the medium-term effects on the balance of payments (especially the trade account), GDP, and employment. The paper is laid out as follows. The next section provides a general background on the RMG sector in Bangladesh. Section III examines Bangladesh’s competitiveness vis-à-vis its main competitors. Section IV identifies major

International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper reviews Bangladesh’s recent growth experience and per capita income. The paper identifies several key impediments to growth, namely: poor governance; restrictive trade and regulatory regimes; and inadequate investment in human capital and physical infrastructure. The paper makes the case that the medium-term fiscal strategy should be centered on boosting the revenue performance of the National Board of Revenue (NBR) by reorganizing it along functional lines, adopting a system of self-assessment, establishing a risk-based auditing system, and introducing a unique taxpayer identification number.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Export Diversification 1 Bangladesh’s narrow export base, notably the low-skilled garment industry, is nearing saturation. Export growth is constrained by the lack of diversification, inadequate infrastructure, shortage of power, and insufficient investment. Bangladesh’s diversification, and in turn growth potential, will hinge on whether these challenges are met in the coming years . A. Why Diversification? 1. Exports in Bangladesh are dominated by the large Ready-Made Garments (RMG) sector which is the real backbone of the economy . The RMG sector

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper analyzes the performance of state-owned commercial banks (SOCB) in Bangladesh. Bangladesh’s experience with the SOCBs is not unique: the SOCBs have been underperforming in comparison to private banks and foreign-owned banks. Large nonperforming loans (NPLs) imply that a large amount of the savings is being wasted by financing lossmaking activities, and therefore becomes unavailable for financing productive investments. High NPLs and the need for provisions also increase the cost of credit to good borrowers, further dampening investment and growth. Resolute steps are required to resolve the SOCBs’ weak performance, reflecting empirical evidence and mixed results from the previous efforts.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper analyzes the surprising strength of remittances in Bangladesh and other countries in South Asia and the Philippines in 2009. The empirical analysis suggests that the continued strong growth of remittances in these countries is related to the resilience of non-oil GDP growth in the GCC countries and the surge in the GCC countries’ hiring of migrant workers from South Asia during 2006–08. The remittances-to-GDP ratio in South Asia and the Philippines are likely to remain robust in the near term.