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International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
The contents of this report constitute technical advice provided by the staff of the IMF to the authorities of Nigeria in response to their request for technical assistance. Unlocking the potential of a rapidly growing population requires substantial improvements in human and physical capital. Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country and its largest economy. Recognizing challenges, Nigeria has embraced the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Agenda. The Economic Recovery and Growth Plan 2017–2020 gives prominence to economic, social and environmental issues. This report assesses additional spending associated with making substantial progress along the SDGs. The report focuses on critical areas of human and physical capital. For each sector, the report documents progress to date, assesses Nigeria relative to peers, highlights challenges, and estimates the spending to make substantial SDG progress. Nigeria has shown gradual improvements in education. A gradual and strategic approach should be considered given the relatively large additional spending.
International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

performance falls far below the median for low-income economies ( Figure 6.a ). 19 This low performance, however, does not seem to be explained by the level of spending. At 4 percent, the share of the GDP devoted to health in Nigeria is shy of that in India, Ghana, and Cameroon—countries with substantially better outcomes—albeit lower than the median for low income and developing countries ( Figure 6.b ). In Purchased Power Parity dollars, Nigeria spends more on health per person than other low-income economies ( Figure 6.c ). At this level of spending per capita, Nigeria