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Ms. Sonali Jain-Chandra and Ms. Longmei Zhang
Korea’s rapid growth has slowed in recent years, suggesting lower potential growth. This paper uses an array of techniques, including statistical filters, a multivariate model and the production function, to estimate Korea’s potential growth. The main finding is that trend growth has fallen from around 4¾ percent during 2000-07 to around 3¼ -3½ percent by 2011-12. Absent reforms, it is projected to fall further to around 2 percent by 2025, primarily due to declining working-age population. However, Korea’s potential growth can be maintained at a higher level by putting in place a comprehensive structural reform agenda, including increased female and youth labor force participation, liberalization of product and labor market regulation. Staff simulations suggest that such reforms could lift potential growth by around 1¼ percentage point over the next decade, maintaining potential growth at around 3¼ percent, counteracting the effect of population aging, and enabling Korea to continue to converge to income levels of the United States.
Ms. Sonali Jain-Chandra and Ms. Longmei Zhang

males is very large compared with OECD peers, due to the high enrolment in tertiary education, mandatory military service and a widening skills mismatch. Given the lack of adequate pension coverage and early retirement of regular workers, older cohorts tend to be over-represented in the workforce, often trapped in low-productivity jobs. Labor participation of female in 2012: Korea and OECD Source: OECD Employment Outlook Database. Simulations suggest that measures to raise participation rates in the underrepresented segments of the population will result

International Monetary Fund

) 1980–84 1985–89 1990–94 1995–99 New Zealand 1.1 −0.3 1.4 1.1 Australia 1.2 2.4 0.7 0.9 Canada 1.4 1.5 0.5 1.3 Finland 0.8 0.2 −1.0 0.6 Ireland 0.9 −0.2 1.8 3.1 Source: OECD Employment Outlook database. Table II.7. Average Annual Employment Growth (In percent) 1980–84 1985–89 1990–94 1995–99 New Zealand 0.6 2.5 1.6 2.0 Australia 1.2 3.5 0.5 2.1 Canada 1.2 2.8 0.2 2.1 Finland 1.4 0.5 −3

International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper discusses the issues related to reforms and growth in New Zealand. The paper analyzes the record on growth and productivity outcomes in a comparative perspective. The study provides a brief history of the industrial relations in New Zealand leading up the passage of the employment contracts act. The paper assesses the monetary policy framework, central bank decision-making processes, and also reviews the possible extensions to full funding of the country's future superannuation expenditures.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights that Korea’s growth has slowed after decades of impressive economic progress. The economy is facing a number of structural headwinds, including unfavorable demographic developments, heavy export reliance, pockets of corporate vulnerability, labor market distortions, lagging productivity, and high household debt. Inequality and poverty are also of concern. Growth is projected to tick up to 2.7 percent in 2016 and 3.0 percent in 2017, with inflation remaining subdued. Credit is expected to continue to grow, partly reflecting the impact of interest rate cuts, but at a slower pace consistent with the tightening of prudential measures and the envisaged moderation in construction investment after 2017.