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Patrick Blagrave and Marika Santoro
Gains in labor force participation rates in Chile have slowed in recent years. We examine their determinants using a cohort-model analysis. Allowing for both age- and cohort-specific effects in the context of a seemingly unrelated regression equations (SURE) approach, we find that age factors play an important role in determining participation decisions, especially for males. For females, we find that strong positive time trends dominate the downward pressure from demographics, although those trends have recently dissipated. In addition, we find that both cohort effects and the business cycle shape participation decisions. Using our cohort-based analysis, we construct projections of participation rates, which suggest population aging will put downward pressure on labor inputs, and thus potential output, in coming years. Further increases in female labor force participation—supported by policies— could more than offset the downward pressure from demographics.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This paper discusses Morocco’s First Review Under the Arrangement Under the Precautionary and Liquidity Line (PLL). The Moroccan authorities are committed to sustaining sound policies. The government’s economic program remains in line with key reforms agreed under the PLL arrangement, including to further reduce fiscal and external vulnerabilities, while strengthening the foundations for higher and more inclusive growth. The transition to greater exchange rate flexibility initiated in 2018 is expected to enhance the economy’s capacity to absorb shocks and preserve its external competitiveness. The current favorable economic environment remains supportive to continue this reform in a carefully sequenced and well-communicated manner. The report recommends that continued reforms are needed to raise potential growth and reduce high unemployment levels, especially among the youth, increase female labor participation, and reduce regional disparities. Reforms of education, governance, the labor market, and the business environment would help support more private sector-led growth and job creation.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This paper discusses Morocco’s Second Review Under the Arrangement Under the Precautionary and Liquidity Line. The authorities are committed to further reduce fiscal and external vulnerabilities, while strengthening the foundations for higher and more inclusive growth. Building on recent progress in improving the business environment, sustained reforms are needed to raise potential growth and reduce high unemployment, especially among the youth, increase female labor participation, and reduce regional disparities. Reforms of education, governance, and the labor market should contribute to more private sector-led growth and job creation. Considering the slowdown in fiscal consolidation, stepped up tax reforms and contained wage bill are needed to lower the public debt-to-gross domestic product ratio while securing priority investment and social spending in the medium term. A decisive and comprehensive tax reform should aim to secure adequate revenues while bringing about greater equity and simplicity of the tax system. The transition to greater exchange rate flexibility initiated in 2018 would enhance the economy’s capacity to absorb shocks and preserve its external competitiveness.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
Following the expiration of the third Precautionary and Liquidity Line (PLL) arrangement, in July 2018, the authorities have requested a new PLL arrangement. They did not draw on the last three arrangements and have made further progress in reducing domestic vulnerabilities in recent years, despite a sharp pick up in oil prices. In an external environment that remains subject to important downside risks, a successor arrangement will support the authorities’ policies to strengthen the economy’s resilience and promote higher and more inclusive growth.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights that the macroeconomic performance of Guatemala has been solid. The economy grew at 4.1 percent in 2015, slightly above potential, despite a slowdown in public consumption and investment during the crisis. Private consumption was lifted by lower oil prices and strong remittances. The latter also boosted the external position, creating a comfortable reserve cushion. With inflation well anchored, monetary policy was eased to support growth. The macroeconomic outlook remains benign. Growth is set to return to its trend rate of 3.8 percent in 2016 and gradually rise to 4 percent in the medium term, reflecting the positive impact of efforts to increase transparency and efficiency in public spending.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This 2019 Article IV Consultation with Morocco discusses that gradually increasing growth, moderate inflation, and stronger external and fiscal buffers are expected over the medium term, benefiting from sustained reform implementation. However, this outlook remains subject to significant domestic and external risks: delays in implementing reforms, lower growth in key partner countries (particularly in the euro area), higher oil prices, geopolitical risks, and volatile financial conditions could weaken Morocco’s resilience and economic prospects. Building on progress achieved in recent years, further fiscal and structural reforms are needed to consolidate gains in macroeconomic resilience and achieve higher and more inclusive growth. The discussions mainly focused on strengthening the resilience of the economy through continued fiscal reforms, greater exchange rate flexibility, and strengthened financial sector soundness. It also highlighted the need for pushing ahead with mutually-reinforcing and properly sequenced reforms to raise growth and inclusion, including by improving public sector governance, promoting private sector development, and reducing inequalities.