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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
On September 1, 2001, Anne Krueger took up the reins as the IMF’s First Deputy Managing Director. She brought with her a wealth of experience from the public and private sectors, including long stints in academia—most recently as an economics professor at Stanford University—and, from 1982 to 1986, as the World Bank’s Vice President for Economics and Research. She is a Distinguished Fellow and past President ofthe American Economic Association.
Mr. Luca Errico and Ms. Mitra Farahbaksh
This paper analyzes the implications of Islamic precepts on banks’ structure and activities, focusing on banking supervision issues. It points out and discusses these issues in the context of a paradigm version of Islamic banking, as well as in frameworks that fall between the paradigm version and conventional banking. The case of Islamic banks operating in a conventional system is also examined.
Mr. Alfred Kammer, Mr. Mohamed Norat, Mr. Marco A. Piñón-Farah, Mr. Ananthakrishnan Prasad, Mr. Christopher M Towe, and Mr. Zeine Zeidane
The SDN discusses the main policy issues and challenges in building an inclusive and safe Islamic finance industry, with emphasis on Islamic banking and Sukuk markets. To this end, it discuses why Islamic finance matters, taking into account its recent and prospective growth; and, its potential contributions in terms of financial inclusion, support for small- and medium-sized enterprises and investment in public infrastructure and, in principle, reduced systemic risk. It then covers a range of regulatory and other challenges, and offers policy advice, to address factors that hamper the development of the industry and, more generally, the delivery of its potential benefits. The paper covers regulatory and supervisory issues, safety nets and resolution frameworks, access to finance, Sukuk markets, and macroeconomic policies.
Mr. In W Song and Carel Oosthuizen
The growing presence of Islamic banking needs to be accompanied by the development of effective regulation and supervision. This paper examines the results of the survey conducted by the International Monetary Fund to document international experiences and country practices related to legal and prudential frameworks governing Islamic banking activities. Although a number of countries have made considerable progress in creating legal, regulatory, and supervisory frameworks that accommodate Islamic banking, there are substantial differences. This paper also identifies a number of challenges faced by regulatory and supervisory agencies regarding Islamic banking.
International Monetary Fund

The macroeconomic objectives of the 1999 Staff-Monitored Program (SMP) have been broadly achieved in Sudan. The macroeconomic situation at the end of 1999 was modestly more expansionary than programmed. Budget expenditure was maintained below the program level throughout the year and a surge in oil prices in late 1999 has increased oil revenue above budgeted amounts. Broad money growth at end-December was roughly in line with the 1999 program. Both oil and non-oil revenue were strong in the first two months, and expenditure was below trend, allowing the government to build up deposits at the central bank.

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

capacity Strengthening accountability for effective implementation and transparency of public expenditure Technical assistance Djibouti tax reform and national account June 2012 May 2014 June 2014 June 2014 May 2016 Aug 2017 June 2017 April 2017 April 2017 April 2017 Title Products Provisional schedule of missions Expected delivery Fund work program for the next 12 months Macroeconomic policy analysis and advice Article IV consultation Technical assistance Reserve management Islamic banking supervision

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Statistics/ Islamic Banking Supervision May 2017 FAD- Budget Preparations and Diagnostic May 2017 MCM- Improving Regulatory Framework November 2017 FAD- Review of Tax Expenditure and Operations December 2017 STA/METAC- National Accounts, Balance of Payments, and Trade Statistics January 2018 STA- National Accounts and Prices Statistics March 2018 MCM/STA- Improving Regulatory Framework and Financial Soundness Indicators March 2018 FAD- Tax Policy October 2018 STA- Balance of Payments Statistics October 2018

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
The Ex Post Assessment aims to provide a frank review of progress during the 2006 and 2011 programs, and a forward-looking assessment that takes into account lessons learned. It begins by providing the background and context for the two programs. It then discusses their overall objectives, how the programs were designed to achieve these objectives, and program performance. After outlining the key issues, it concludes with some lessons, including for Afghanistan's future engagement with the IMF. Since late 2001, after NATO forces toppled the Taliban, the country received unprecedented support from the donor community in the context of two IMF-supported programs.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights Djibouti’s expansion of its transportation and utilities infrastructure to leverage its strategic location as a shipping hub and host to military bases. The authorities’ development strategy, Vision Djibouti 2035, aims to transform the country into a middle-income economy and a logistics and commercial hub for all of eastern Africa. Growth is estimated to have reached 6.5 percent in 2016, driven by major public sector projects: the railroad to Ethiopia, the construction of several new ports, and a water pipeline from Ethiopia. Inflation rose to 3 percent on average in 2016, reflecting increased food and service prices.