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Mr. David Coady, Mr. Benedict J. Clements, and Mr. Sanjeev Gupta

It is very widely acknowledged that health is an important component of human development. The empowerment of people comes from the freedoms they enjoy, and these include, among others, freedom from poverty, hunger, and malnutrition, and freedom to work and lead a healthy life ( Sen, 1999 ). Access to health care is critical to improving health status, and good health is necessary for empowerment. Ensuring access to health care helps to minimize absenteeism, enhance labor productivity, and prevent misery. Government intervention in health is also argued for

Josette Sheeran

treatment, including the ready-to-use peanut-based supplement Plumpy’Sup, Sadak is healthy. His round face and uplifting smile are proof that this investment pays off in lives saved. Research in the British medical journal The Lancet confirms that children who do not have adequate nutrition for the first 1,000 days from conception to the age of two are at risk for inadequate brain development and permanent damage. Hunger and malnutrition are long-term economic problems that reduce the earning potential of individuals and the human capital of nations. A study

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

productivity within the agricultural sector is needed for India to achieve its Sustainable Development Goal of ending all forms of malnutrition by 2030 . Hunger and Malnutrition 1. While India has achieved its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of reducing poverty by half, it has fallen short of achieving the target for reducing hunger . India ranked 97th out of 118 countries on the International Food Policy Research Institute’s Global Hunger Index (GHI) in 2016, lagging behind most of its peers. Although India is one of the world’s largest producers of rice and

International Monetary Fund
The aim of the paper is to shift the focus of famine analysis away from food supply towards the macroeconomic determinants of food entitlement—i.e., to the ability of individuals to purchase food. Towards this end, we develop a model to demonstrate how loose monetary and fiscal policies may give rise to famine even when there is no change in per capita food output. We illustrate our findings with a description of the 1974 Bangladesh famine.