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International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

implications for income in (c). If a free digital product is added to output and consumption, GDP compilers would have to impute two transactions that raise the gross income of the consumer and producer of that product. The producer would provide imputed income to the consumer as a transfer, or possibly a purchase of ad-viewing services, which would be used to purchase the free product. However, imputed income that the consumer simultaneously receives and returns differs in important ways from actual money income, and imputed producer revenue differs in important ways from

International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.
Digitalization encompasses a wide range of new applications of information technology in business models and products that are transforming the economy and social interactions. Digitalization is both an enabler and a disruptor of businesses. The lack of a generally agreed definition of the “digital economy” or “digital sector” and the lack of industry and product classification for Internet platforms and associated services are hurdles to measuring the digital economy. This paper distinguishes between the “digital sector” and the increasingly digitalized modern economy, often called the “digital economy,” and focuses on the measurement of the digital sector. The digital sector covers the core activities of digitalization, ICT goods and services, online platforms, and platform-enabled activities such as the sharing economy.
International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

participating countries release GDP compiled by major expenditure category or by productive sectors (industry); 1 and it encourages the dissemination of both. The disaggregation of GDP by major expenditure categories or by productive sectors is recommended. Although countries can use their own classifications in the expenditure/productive sector approaches, classification of data according to the latest edition of the SNA is strongly encouraged. 2 The SNA provides useful guidance on best practices for compilation of the national accounts. A participating country can refer

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

/CFT measures. Resident Representative/Advisor : None. Statistical Issues (As of December 2019) I. Assessment of Data Adequacy for Surveillance General : Data provision is broadly adequate for surveillance. National accounts : Currently, the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOSM) publishes annual and quarterly estimates of GDP, compiled by the production, expenditure, and (annual only) income approaches, at current and constant 2015 prices, based on the 2008 SNA . The DOSM also disseminates annual estimates for gross disposable

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

broadly adequate for surveillance. However, further efforts to improve statistics for the consolidated general government and public sector are necessary. National accounts : Currently, the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOSM) publishes annual and quarterly estimates of GDP, compiled by the production and by the expenditure approach, at current and constant prices, with base year 2010, based on the 2008 SNA . The DOSM also disseminates annual estimates for gross disposable income, saving, and net lending for the economy. The quarterly data are released about

General : Data provision is adequate for surveillance. National accounts : Currently, the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOSM) publishes annual and quarterly estimates of GDP, compiled by the production, expenditure, and (annual only) income approaches, at current and constant 2015 prices, based on the 2008 SNA . The DOSM also disseminates annual estimates for gross disposable income, saving, and net lending for the economy, as well as supply and use tables. Quarterly GDP estimates are released about one and a half months after the reference quarter

Anthony Silungwe, Mr. Andrew Baer, and Vanda Guerreiro

economy (to name a few). Despite their importance, only 52.4 percent of the economies (representing 68.4 percent of World GDP) compile institutional sector accounts. More than 73 percent of the European economies (representing 19.0 percent of World GDP) compile institutional sectoral accounts. 14 In Asia and Oceania, only 58.0 percent and 52.9 percent of economies, respectively, compile some degree of institutional sector accounts. Figure 7. Number Economies Compiling Institutional Sector Accounts by Region Source: 2020 – IMF staff based on the Annual

Anthony Silungwe, Mr. Andrew Baer, and Vanda Guerreiro
This paper analyzes the availability, methodological soundness, and scope of National Accounts statistics in IMF member and non-member countries in 2020. National Account statistics are instrumental in the development of fiscal and monetary policy and in monitoring economic developments. This analysis examines the appropriateness of the current set of global national accounts statistics for current policy development and highlights regions where further development may be required. The assessment is based on the results of a national accounts survey conducted by Fund staff that examined the scope of national accounts programs in IMF member countries. The survey was completed by statistical authorities between March 2021 and July 2021. The information reflects the state of National Accounts Programs as of the end 2020. In cases of non-response, IMF staff used information taken from the IMF’s Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board (DSBB) and country websites to provide the status of national accounts compilation practices. This analysis summarizes the following key indicators: time lag of national accounts benchmarks, availability annual and quarterly GDP estimates, vintage of the System of National Accounts (SNA), index formula used for calculating annual constant price (volume) estimates, availability of GDP by different approaches, timeliness of disseminating and annual and quarterly GDP estimates, availability institutional sector accounts, and access to source data.
International Monetary Fund

Bound Estimation 4.3.1. Introduction 4.18. The aim of upper bound estimation (sometimes termed “sensitivity analysis”) is to derive an upper limit to the extent of NOE activities. The essence of the procedure is to consider systematically for each component of GDP the maximum possible amount of NOE activities and to total the results to obtain an upper bound. The procedure can be applied to GDP compiled by any or all of the expenditure, income and production approaches. It can be applied for all NOE problem areas, or just for specific types, for example