Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for :

  • "Female Informal Employment" x
Clear All
Ms. Christine Dieterich, Anni Huang, and Mr. Alun H. Thomas
As labor market data is scarce in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), this paper uses household survey data to analyze the determinants of the gender gap in the labor market and its welfare implications for five SSA countries in multinomial logit models with propensity score matching method. The analysis confirms that education opens up opportunities for women to escape agricultural feminization and engage in formal wage employment, but these opportunities diminish when women marry—a disadvantage increasingly relevant when countries develop and urbanization progresses. Opening a household enterprise offers women an alternative avenue to escape low-paid jobs in agriculture, but the increase in per capita income is lower than male-owned household enterprises. These findings underline that improving women’s education needs to be supported by measures to allow married women to keep their jobs in the wage sector.
Ms. Christine Dieterich, Anni Huang, and Mr. Alun H. Thomas

Front Matter Page African Department Contents ABSTRACT I. INTRODUCTION II. LITERATURE REVIEW III. LOW/LOWER MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES AGRICULTURE FEMINIZATION AND FEMALE INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT A. Education Determines Employment B. Women’s Marriage Cancels out Education Effect C. Urbanization and Job Opportunity D. Regression Analysis and Welfare Implication IV. UPPER MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES: LOW FEMALE LABOR PARTICIPATION RATE AND HIGH FEMALE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE V. POLICY IMPLICATIONS REFERENCES FIGURES Figure 1. Employment

Rasmané Ouedraogo and Elodie Marlet

and inequality indices and estimating the equations for each subcomponent indicate that FDI inflows affect particularly women’s life expectancy and maternity mortality ratio, as well as the female-to-male ratio of gross enrolment rate to the secondary level. Concerning employment, FDI inflows are negatively associated with female informal employment, female-to-male ratio of part-time employment in percentage of total employment, and the gender wage gap. Finally, the results show that the impact of FDI inflows on gender inequality depends on women’s access to

Rasmané Ouedraogo and Elodie Marlet
This paper assesses the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) on gender development and gender inequality. In fact, FDI through increased labor demand, technological spillovers but mostly through corporate social responsibility and economic growth, can potentially influence women’s welfare. Using a panel dataset of 94 developing countries from 1990 to 2015, we find that FDI inflows improve women’s welfare and decrease gender inequality. However, the impact is lower in countries where women have low access to resources and face a heavier burden to open a business. This suggests that for countries to fully benefit from FDI inflows, they should ensure that women can enjoy free access to the labor market and associated income.
Ms. Christine Dieterich, Anni Huang, and Mr. Alun H. Thomas

, such as, land ownership, fertilizer, and credit etc., explains the gender productivity gap. (Croppenstendt et al., 2013) In lower-middle income countries , rising female informal employment, defined as female household enterprise employment in our paper, is commonly observed . Filmer and Fox (2014) predict that the household enterprise sector will create the largest number of job opportunities in the coming decade. Even when assuming that the modern wage sector is growing rapidly, it starts at such a low base that it is not capable of providing enough jobs for

Purva Khera

finances L f L 0.12 share of female entrepreneurs’ employment W m W f 1.4 gender wage gap L I f L F f + L I f 0.80 share of femalesinformal employment L I m L F m + L I m 0.70 share of males’ informal employment H P t f H P t m 14.19 gender gap in home

Purva Khera
Gender gaps in womens’ economic opportunities—labor market and entrepreneurship—have remained high in India. Lack of adequate collateral limits women entrepreneurs’ ability to access formal finance, leaving them to rely on informal sources, constraining their growth. A small-open economy DSGE model is built to investigate the long-run macroeconomic impacts from closing gender gaps in financial access. Results suggest that an increase in women entrepreneurs access to formal credit results in higher female entrepreneurship and employment, which boosts India’s output by 1.6 percent. However, regulations and gender-specific constraints in the labor market limit potential gains as females’ access to quality jobs in the formal sector remains restricted. The paper shows that the factors influencing the number of females are different from those influencing the share of females in formal economic activity. Combining gender-targeted financial inclusion policies with policies that lower constraints on formal sector employment could boost India’s output by 6.8 percent.

leads to an immediate increase in female informal employment, as opposed to a gradual increase in female formal employment over time. Higher job-finding rate increases females’ return from job search, which increases female labor supply, P f . The positive impact of higher productivity of female workers on wages outweighs the negative impact of higher female labor supply in the long run, leading to an increase in female wages, W f F and W f I , in both sectors. However, female wages are lower in the short run as the latter effect dominates given slow job creation

Purva Khera
This paper examines the macroeconomic interaction between informality and gender inequality in the labor market. A dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model is built to study the impact of gender-targeted policies on female labor force participation, female formal employment, gender wage gap, as well as on aggregate economic outcomes. The model is estimated using Bayesian techniques and Indian data. Although these policies are found to increase female labor force participation and output, lack of sufficient formal job creation due to labor market rigidities leads to an increase in unemployment and informality, and further widens gender gaps in formal employment and wages. Simultaneously implementing such policies with formal job creating policies helps remove these adverse impacts while also leading to significantly larger gains in output.