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International Monetary Fund

contributions by Abe Selassie (IMF) and Daniela Gressani (World Bank); comments and background material by the IMF and World Bank country teams on Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, FYR Macedonia, Romania, and FR Yugoslavia; and comments by the European Commission, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Stability Pact. IMF and World Bank staffs acknowledge, in particular, the helpful comments and insights provided by the authorities of the countries of the region. Research

International Monetary Fund

I. Introduction Before the Kosovo conflict, the countries of South East Europe (SEE)—Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, FYR Macedonia, Romania, and FR Yugoslavia 1 —were at different stages of economic development, integration with the global market, and transition to a market economy. The economic performance of the group as a whole lagged behind that of Central Europe and the Baltics. The reasons for this development varied from country to country, but ethnic conflict, political instability, and a timid and fitful approach to structural

.3 Germany 1.4 0.5 2.9 15.9 Italy 0.6 0.8 5.8 0.7 United Kingdom 0.5 -0.4 0.2 -0.2 Countries of former Yugoslavia 38.7 58.5 119.7 116.1 Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.6 7.5 20.4 41.5 Croatia 25.8 40.6 82.4 35.6 FR Yugoslavia 1.0 2.1 11.6 28.9 FYR Macedonia 7.3 8.3 5.3 10.0 CEFTA 2/ -2.2 10.1 21.1 24.4 Of which: Czech Republic -0.2 5.7 2.5 0.4 Poland -1.0 3.4 13.2 4.9 Romania 0.2 0.3 4.7 7.8 Countries of former Soviet Union 2.5 5.2 9.3 11.5 Of which: Russian Federation 2.4 5.1 8.2 10.4 Other countries 5.9 13.3 5.7 -17.9 Of which: Liberia 6.3 2.7 2.9 -1.8 United States -2.1 0.6 0

International Monetary Fund

In months of merchandise imports 1.2 2.4 2.9 3.7 External debt 13/ (In millions of U.S. dollars) … 3,361 3,620 4,076 (In percent of GDP) … 156 109 91 Debt service (in percent of exports of goods and nonfactor services) … 118 63 31 Memorandum items: Exchange rates (period average) BiH dinar per deutsche mark 14/ … 100 100 100 FR Yugoslav dinar per deutsche mark 15/ 1.2 2.4 3.5 3.9 Croatia

International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper provides background information for the 1998 Article IV Consultation with Bosnia and Herzegovina. The paper contains an overview of economic and political developments. It describes the establishment of the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina, developments in the financial sector, and external sector developments and policies. The paper highlights that in formulating their economic program for 1998–99, the authorities in all regions indicated their commitment to an economic strategy based on the maintenance of cautious macroeconomic policies, the rebuilding of public administration, market-oriented structural reforms, and a well-coordinated reconstruction program.
International Monetary Fund
The study focuses on corrective fiscal policies for 2000, the budgets for 2001, and the agenda for structural reform. An important issue discussed in revising the 2000 budgets was the expenditure policy required to contain spending commitments within available resources. The authorities have made some progress in the area of fiscal transparency. Despite high unemployment, major strides have been made in labor market reform, an area that has been difficult to tackle now. Progress in privatizing state-owned banks has been patchy.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper discusses several features of the Slovene economy that may explain the weak relationship between credit and domestic demand growth. It reviews credit growth developments in Slovenia and in selected European Union new member states, and compares their experiences with that of noncore euro area countries, including Ireland, Greece, Portugal, and Spain, before their adoption of the euro. Findings o