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Marco A Espinosa-Vega, Ms. Kazuko Shirono, Mr. Hector Carcel Villanova, Miss Esha Chhabra, Ms. Bidisha Das, and Ms. Yingjie Fan

the population, including women and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). These findings highlight a need to close the gaps in FAS data collection, carefully consider cross-country differences in financial intermediation structures, and keep pace with innovations, such as digital finance—to better track enablers of financial inclusion across the globe. As different modalities of financial access gain traction, policymakers will face new challenges—such as consumer protection and financial stability considerations associated with these innovations. Looking

Marco A Espinosa-Vega, Ms. Kazuko Shirono, Mr. Hector Carcel Villanova, Miss Esha Chhabra, Ms. Bidisha Das, and Ms. Yingjie Fan
This departmental paper marks the 10th anniversary of the IMF Financial Access Survey (FAS). It offers a retrospective of the FAS database, along with some reflections as to its future directions. Since its 2009 launch, the FAS has provided granular data on access to and use of financial services. It is a supply-side database with annual global coverage based on data sourced directly from financial service providers—aimed at supporting policymakers to target and evaluate financial inclusion policies. Its data collection has kept pace with financial innovation, such as the rise of mobile money and growing demand for gender-disaggregated data—and the FAS must continue to evolve.
Marco A Espinosa-Vega, Ms. Kazuko Shirono, Mr. Hector Carcel Villanova, Miss Esha Chhabra, Ms. Bidisha Das, and Ms. Yingjie Fan

retail agent outlets to carry out basic financial transactions, especially in Latin America. And mobile money has changed the way people access financial services in sub-Saharan Africa. These innovations have helped broaden access in countries where traditional banking services have limited reach. The paper also highlights the need to close FAS data collection gaps, including those of advanced economies, and the importance of differences in financial intermediation structures, including digital finance. The paper’s analysis suggests that in countries where mobile

Marco A Espinosa-Vega, Ms. Kazuko Shirono, Mr. Hector Carcel Villanova, Miss Esha Chhabra, Ms. Bidisha Das, and Ms. Yingjie Fan
International Monetary Fund
In Kenya, the general government is not defined consistently with government finance statistics (GFS) principles. Relationships between the central government and public nonfinancial and financial corporations are generally clearly defined. Government holdings of fully owned corporations and equity are moderate, and the management of state assets is clearly defined. The legislative basis for taxation is clear and comprehensive. Tax administration is clearly defined and well coordinated with overall fiscal management. External scrutiny of macroeconomic assumptions is encouraged. Kenya meets some of the requirements of the fiscal transparency code.
International Monetary Fund

. Fiscal reporting does not cover all of general government and there are gaps in the coverage of central government in in-year budget outturn reports . 3.3.1, 2.1.1 Reporting consolidated general government fiscal data remains elusive, with most reporting and analysis still focused on Central Government data with limited and less frequent reporting on sub-national governments, SAGAs, EBFs and FAs. Data collection arrangements exist, but remain fragmented and untapped for general government reporting purposes. A few local governments fail to comply with the quarterly

International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & Review Department

Macroeconomics and Gender Equality. D. Data and Toolkits 15. The IMF’s Financial Access Survey (FAS) is a unique source of annual supply-side data on access to and the use of basic financial services. The FAS was established in 2009. After two pilot gender-disaggregated data collections, the Statistics Department (STA) mainstreamed gender-disaggregated data as part of the regular FAS data collection in 2018. Data disaggregated by gender are available for both commercial banks and microfinance institutions for 71 countries, half of which are developing countries

International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & Review Department
On July 22, 2022, the Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved the IMF’s first Strategy toward Mainstreaming Gender into the IMF’s core activities. Mainstreaming gender at the IMF starts with the recognition that reducing gender disparities goes hand-in-hand with higher economic growth, greater economic stability and resilience, and lower income inequality. At the same time, economic and financial policies can exacerbate or narrow gender disparities. Well-designed macroeconomic, structural, and financial policies can support efficient and inclusive outcomes and equitably benefit women, girls, and the society in general. The strategy lays out how the IMF can help its member countries address gender disparities in the context of carrying out its core functions—surveillance, lending, and capacity development. The strategy comprises four key pillars: first, gender-disaggregated data collection and development of modeling tools to enable staff to conduct policy analysis; second, a robust governance framework for an evenhanded approach across members based on the macro-criticality of gender; third, strengthening collaboration with external partners to benefit from knowledge sharing and peer learning, leverage complementarities, and maximize the impact on the ground; and fourth, the efficient use of resources allocated to gender by putting in place a central unit for realizing scale economies and supporting country teams.