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Marco A Espinosa-Vega, Ms. Kazuko Shirono, Mr. Hector Carcel Villanova, Miss Esha Chhabra, Ms. Bidisha Das, and Ms. Yingjie Fan

. Financial Inclusion and Its Measurement Financial Inclusion: What It Entails and Why It Matters Measures of Financial Inclusion Sources of Financial Inclusion Data: Supply-Side vs. Demand-Side Financial Access Databases 3. Financial Access Survey (FAS): An Overview Supply-Side Data Source with Global Coverage FAS Indicators FAS Coverage and Reporting The FAS in the Global Context 4. Recent Financial Access Trends Global Trend: Changing Modes of Access to Finance High-Income Countries Are Leading the Shift Toward Mobile and Internet

Marco A Espinosa-Vega, Ms. Kazuko Shirono, Mr. Hector Carcel Villanova, Miss Esha Chhabra, Ms. Bidisha Das, and Ms. Yingjie Fan
This departmental paper marks the 10th anniversary of the IMF Financial Access Survey (FAS). It offers a retrospective of the FAS database, along with some reflections as to its future directions. Since its 2009 launch, the FAS has provided granular data on access to and use of financial services. It is a supply-side database with annual global coverage based on data sourced directly from financial service providers—aimed at supporting policymakers to target and evaluate financial inclusion policies. Its data collection has kept pace with financial innovation, such as the rise of mobile money and growing demand for gender-disaggregated data—and the FAS must continue to evolve.
Marco A Espinosa-Vega, Ms. Kazuko Shirono, Mr. Hector Carcel Villanova, Miss Esha Chhabra, Ms. Bidisha Das, and Ms. Yingjie Fan

include registered and active mobile money accounts, mobile money transactions, and balances. Currently, there is no gender-disaggregation for branchless banking and mobile money in the FAS. FAS Coverage and Reporting Among countries reporting data for the 2019 FAS round, the average number of reported series and indicators is 65 (out of 121) and 32 (out of 64), respectively. The number of indicators reported ranges between 7 and 64, highlighting the potential to further improve reporting ( Figure 4 ). The top five countries that report the largest number of

Marco A Espinosa-Vega, Ms. Kazuko Shirono, Mr. Hector Carcel Villanova, Miss Esha Chhabra, Ms. Bidisha Das, and Ms. Yingjie Fan