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Mr. Nicolas Arregui, Ms. Ruo Chen, Mr. Christian H Ebeke, Jan-Martin Frie, Mr. Daniel Garcia-Macia, Ms. Dora M Iakova, Andreas Jobst, Louise Rabier, Mr. James Roaf, Ms. Anna Shabunina, and Mr. Sebastian Weber
This paper discusses sectoral policies needed to achieve the ambitious greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets announced in the European Union’s Green Deal, complementing the companion paper “EU Climate Mitigation Policy”, which focuses on broader EU-level policies. With total emissions nearly a quarter below their 1990 level, the EU has made important progress, but the new goals will require much stronger policy action. Moreover, progress has varied across sectors. Emissions from power and industry have fallen by about a third, buildings by a quarter and agriculture by a fifth – while transport emissions have risen. This paper argues that this divergence reflects differences in effective carbon prices, but also cost differences among the available abatement channels, market imperfections, and policy gaps. It discusses specific sectoral policies needed to address these factors and achieve the new emissions reduction goals.
Mr. Nicolas Arregui, Ms. Ruo Chen, Mr. Christian H Ebeke, Jan-Martin Frie, Mr. Daniel Garcia-Macia, Ms. Dora M Iakova, Andreas Jobst, Louise Rabier, Mr. James Roaf, Ms. Anna Shabunina, and Mr. Sebastian Weber

additional carbon pricing of industrial emissions at a national level. Free allowances granted to certain industries in the ETS should be gradually phased out, and a carefully designed carbon border adjustment mechanism can be considered to prevent reductions in EU emissions being reflected in higher emissions abroad. Higher carbon prices would also make support schemes, including subsidies, for renewable power unnecessary. And where the carbon prices needed to incentivize investments would be unfeasibly high, revenue-neutral instruments such as feebates can be considered

Mr. Nicolas Arregui, Ms. Ruo Chen, Mr. Christian H Ebeke, Jan-Martin Frie, Mr. Daniel Garcia-Macia, Ms. Dora M Iakova, Andreas Jobst, Louise Rabier, Mr. James Roaf, Ms. Anna Shabunina, and Mr. Sebastian Weber

products with above-average emission rates and a sliding scale of rebates for products with below-average emission rates. 1 Since emissions from land use related to agriculture represent the largest component of emissions from land use land use change, forestry, and fisheries, the share of agriculture increases to 12 percent if these are included in total EU emissions. However, attributing forestry, which is emission-negative, to agriculture would substantially reduce the emissions from the sector. 2 Livestock density is associated with pressure on the