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Mr. Phillip L Swagel, Mr. Steven V Dunaway, and Mr. Martin D Kaufman
Differences in per capita output across Canadian provinces have narrowed less than disparities in per capita income in past decades. Using a panel regression framework, this paper studies the differential impact of federal transfer programs on output convergence. The evidence suggests that while the Employment Insurance (EI) system seems to have had a significant negative effect on output convergence?by discouraging migration within Canada?the Equalization transfers may have helped spur convergence. The EI system, despite reforms introduced in the 1990s, still appears to contain features that deter labor mobility.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper assesses the long-term fiscal position of Canada. Simulations based on current tax and spending policies suggest that the fiscal position will remain favorable until well into the middle of the century, and relatively modest adjustments would be required to make these policies sustainable in the long term. The analysis also illustrates that these conclusions could be easily overturned if pressures to spend the planning surpluses that are expected to emerge in coming years are not resisted, and if measures are not put in place to contain the cost of health care.
Mr. Phillip L Swagel, Mr. Steven V Dunaway, and Mr. Martin D Kaufman

Disposable Income, Output, and EI Transfers 3. Canada: EI Generosity Index References

Mr. Phillip L Swagel, Mr. Steven V Dunaway, and Mr. Martin D Kaufman

level of generosity has returned to close to the level of the 1960s. However, the system continues to differentiate benefits depending on the level of unemployment within regions and the generosity index for high unemployment regions is still high. Figure 3. Canada: EI Generosity Index Source: Sargent (1995) and recent update. C. Regional Convergence of Output Per-Capita Several aspects of the Equalization and the Employment Insurance systems could work against promoting convergence of per capita output across the provinces. For example, the

International Monetary Fund

. Reforms during the 1990s substantially lowered the generosity of EI benefits, and the average level of generosity has returned to close to the level of the 1960s. However, the system continues to differentiate benefits depending on the level of unemployment within regions and the generosity index for high unemployment regions is still high. Figure 3. Canada. EI Generosity Index Source; Sargent ( 1995 ) and recent update. C. Regional Convergence of Output Per-Capita 13. Several aspects of the Equalization and the Employment Insurance systems could work

International Monetary Fund

Per-Capita Tables IV. 1. Canada: Convergence Equation, with Migration Channel 2. Canada: Convergence Equation, with Migration Channel and Fixed Effects Figures IV. 1. Canada: Dispersion of Provincial Output and Disposable Income 2. Canada: Changes in Disposable Income, Output, and EI Transfers 3. Canada: EI Generosity Index