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Mr. Alexei P Kireyev

Front Matter Page Middle East and Central Asia Contents Acknowledgment Overview Main Findings and Recommendations I. Growth Inclusiveness in Djibouti A. Introduction B. Factors of Growth Inclusiveness C. Inclusive Growth Diagnostics D. Policy Options to Increase Growth Inclusiveness II. Fiscal Policy in Djibouti: Supporting Growth While Restoring Debt Sustainability A. Introduction B. Fiscal Performance and Fiscal Space C. Growth-Friendly Fiscal Policies D. Fiscal Rules for Djibouti E. Conclusions III. Business

Mr. Benedicte Baduel, Asel Isakova, and Anna Ter-Martirosyan

Front Matter Page Institute for Capacity Development Contents Abstract Introduction I. Youth Poverty and Unemployment A. Demographics and secular trends B. Young people in the labor market C. Causes of youth vulnerability D. Policy options II. Elderly Poverty A. Why elderly poverty? B. Measuring elderly poverty C. Facts on elderly poverty D. Sources of income for elderly people E. Policies to reduce elderly poverty III. Intergenerational Mobility A. Measuring intergenerational social mobility B. Barriers and

International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

of Financial Assets and Liabilities of the Institutional Sectors II. An Example of the Netting-out Adjustments III. Estimates of Private Capital Flows without the Netting-out Adjustments References A MODEL OF THE HOUSING-MARKET BREAKEVEN VACANCY RATE FOR SWITZERLAND A. Motivation and Stylized Facts B. Theoretical Model C. Empirical Results D. Policy Implications BOX 1. Mathematical Details of the Model REFORMING THE SWISS PENSION SYSTEM A. Context B. Need for Reform C. Ongoing Reforms D. Policy Options for Long-term Sustainability

International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

A. Introduction B. The Rationale Behind Kosovo’s Current Tax Structure C. Revenue Replacement with Trade Liberalization: Empirical Analysis D. Policy Options and Concluding Remarks References EUROIZATION, LIQUIDITY NEEDS, AND FOREIGN CURRENCY RESERVES A. Foreign Currency Reserves in a Unilaterally Euroized Economy B. How Large Should Kosovo’s Reserves Be? C. Alternative Mechanisms for Funding Reserves References BENCHMARKING FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT A. Introduction B. Banking Sector Growth and Development References

Mr. Manmohan Singh and Haobin Wang

. Uncertainty about and Risks to the Value of Collateral C. Market Plumbing D. Policy Options for EMs—Capital Control vs. Macro-prudential Policy V. Conclusion Figures 1. Ownership of U.S. Treasuries 2. Effects of QE on Asset Prices 3a. Effects of QE Exit: Interest Rate Hike 3b. Effects of QE Exit: Balance Sheet Unwind 4. Policy Rates and Market Short-term Rates 5. After Fed Liftoff: Spread between Repo Rate and Fed Funds has Increased 6a. Effects of EM’s Capital Control 6b. Effects of EM’s Macro-prudential Policy 7a. Varying Capital Control in

International Monetary Fund

. Estimating Potential Output References II. Is Sri Lanka’s External Competitiveness of Concern? A. Introduction B. Tradable Sector Performance C. Production Cost and Relative Price Analysis D. Estimates of the Equilibrium Exchange Rate E. Structural Competitiveness F. Assessment and Policy Recommendation References III. Macroeconomic Challenges of High Private Sector Credit Growth A. Background B. Is This Rapid Credit Growth a Phenomenon of Financial Deepening? C. Risks Associated with Rapid Credit Growth D. Policy Options E