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Fernanda Brollo, Emine Hanedar, and Mr. Sébastien Walker
This paper assesses the additional spending required to make substantial progress towards achieving the SDGs in Pakistan. We focus on critical areas of human (education and health) and physical (electricity, roads, and water and sanitation) capital. For each sector, we document the progress to date, assess where Pakistan stands relative to its peers, highlight key challenges, and estimate the additional spending required to make substantial progress. The estimates for the additional spending are derived using the IMF SDG costing methodology. We find that to achieve the SDGs in these sectors would require additional annual spending of about 16 percent of GDP in 2030 from the public and private sectors combined.
Fernanda Brollo, Emine Hanedar, and Mr. Sébastien Walker

derived using the IMF SDG costing methodology. We find that to achieve the SDGs in these sectors would require additional annual spending of about 16 percent of GDP in 2030 from the public and private sectors combined. JEL Classification Numbers: H1, H2, H3 Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals, Pakistan, Costing SDGs Authors’ E-Mail Addresses: FBrollo@imf.org ; EHanedar@imf.org ; SWalker@imf.org Content Abstract I. Introduction II. Spending Estimates A. Education B. Health C. Water and Sanitation D. Electricity E. Roads III

Johanna Tiedemann, Veronica Piatkov, Dinar Prihardini, Juan Carlos Benitez, and Ms. Aleksandra Zdzienicka

Nations Children’s Fund UNSTAT United Nations Statistics Division US$ United States Dollar VNR Voluntary National Review WASH Water Sanitation and Hygiene WDI World Development Indicators WEO World Economic Outlook WHO World Health Organization Table of Contents I. INTRODUCTION II. SDS GROWTH-CLIMATE NEXUS AND PROGRESS TOWARD SUSTAINABLE DEVELOEMENT III. COSTING SDGS IN CLIMATE VULNERABILE SDS: APPROACH A. Physical Infrastructure (Roads, Energy/Electricity and WASH

Johanna Tiedemann, Veronica Piatkov, Dinar Prihardini, Juan Carlos Benitez, and Ms. Aleksandra Zdzienicka
Small Developing States (SDS) face substantial challenges in achieving sustainable development. Many of these challenges relate to the small size and limited diversification of their economies. SDS are also among the most vulnerable countries to the impact of climate change and natural disasters. Meeting SDS sustainable development goals goes hand-in-hand with building their climate resilience. But the additional costs to meet development and resilience objectives are substantial and difficult to finance. This work adapts the IMF SDG Costing methodology to capture the unique characteristics and challenges of climate-vulnerable SDS. It also zooms into financing options, estimating domestic tax potential and discussing the possibility of accessing ‘climate funds.’
Johanna Tiedemann, Veronica Piatkov, Dinar Prihardini, Juan Carlos Benitez, Ms. Aleksandra Zdzienicka, and Mr. James Daniel

these challenges: additional costs to meet selected SDG targets and increase climate resilience. III. Costing SDGs in Climate Vulnerabile SDS: Approach Following Gaspar and others (2019) , we use an input-outcome approach to estimate country-specific additional costs to achieve selected development goals in selected SDS, accounting for their vulnerabilities to the effects of climate change. As in Gaspar and others, our approach differs between SDGs focused on physical infrastructure and those that are related to social development sectors (health and