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Mr. Andrew Baer, Mr. Kwangwon Lee, and James Tebrake
Digitalization and the innovative use of digital technologies is changing the way we work, learn, communicate, buy and sell products. One emerging digital technology of growing importance is cloud computing. More and more businesses, governments and households are purchasing hardware and software services from a small number of large cloud computing providers. This change is having an impact on how macroeconomic data are compiled and how they are interpreted by users. Specifically, this is changing the information and communication technology (ICT) investment pattern from one where ICT investment was diversified across many industries to a more concentrated investment pattern. Additionally, this is having an impact on cross-border flows of commercial services since the cloud service provider does not need to be located in the same economic territory as the purchaser of cloud services. This paper will outline some of the methodological and compilation challenges facing statisticians and analysts, provide some tools that can be used to overcome these challenges and highlight some of the implications these changes are having on the way users of national accounts data look at investment and trade in commercial services.
Mr. Andrew Baer, Mr. Kwangwon Lee, and James Tebrake

customers through a SaaS model. This includes business intelligence tools, such as Amazon QuickSight and Google Cloud DataLab. Within the SaaS category, large service providers are similarly offering a mix of their own developed software solutions and those developed by other publishers. These bundles create additional challenges in consistent product classification. While most cloud computing services are sold to business and institutional buyers, cloud data storage services and some SaaS products are also sold for personal consumption expenditure. Cloud storage

Mr. Yan Carriere-Swallow and Mr. Vikram Haksar

proliferation of digital economic activity have drastically reduced the cost of collecting and storing data. 3 Second, the cost curve faced by data-collecting firms has been shifted down by the development of third-party data intermediaries such as cloud storage services, which transform the fixed costs into variable costs. These intermediaries thus tend to reduce the economies of scale faced by data collectors, and do so by achieving very large scale themselves. These changes to the costs of collecting and storing data have contributed to an increasing amount of data

Mr. John D Brondolo

included in or excluded from the definition of digital services, respectively. Included (positive list) Digital content (e.g. downloading of mobile applications, e-books, and movies) and online subscription-based media (e.g. news, magazines, streaming of TV shows and music, and online gaming); Software programs (e.g. downloading of software, drivers, website filters and firewalls); Electronic data management (e.g. website hosting, online data warehousing, file-sharing and cloud storage services); and, Support services performed via electronic means, to

Mr. John D Brondolo
This technical note and manual (TNM) addresses the following questions: (1) What are the main challenges in administering the value-added tax on imported digital services and the measures that countries have introduced to address the challenges?; (2) What are the main challenges in administering the value-added tax on low-value imported goods and the measures that countries have introduced to address the challenges? ;and (3) What are the key tasks in implementing the measures for improving the administration of the value-added tax on imported digital services and low-value imported goods?