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Mr. Alfred Schipke and Mr. Dominique Desruelle

Abstract

How to entrench hard-won gains, increase resilience to shocks, and improve growth performance to reduce poverty? As Central America moves forward in regaining macroeconomic stability, these are the challenges. This study analyzes Central America’s real, fiscal, monetary, and financial sector policies at the regional level, starting with a review of growth performance and the macroeconomic implications of remittances. It then looks at the sustainability of pension systems, financial system development, sovereign debt vulnerabilities, and ways to sustain progress in reducing inflation by strengthening the credibility of central banks.

Mr. Alfred Schipke and Mr. Dominique Desruelle

of China (2006) Regional, Northern Triangle, Mexico (2001) 2 Regional, Central America–Chile (negotiating) Regional, Central America–Panama (negotiating) El Salvador Regional, CAFTA-DR (2006) 1 Regional, Central America–Dominican Republic (1999) Regional, Northern Triangle, Mexico (2001) 2 Regional, Central America–Chile (negotiating) Regional, Central America–Panama (negotiating) Honduras Regional, CAFTA-DR (2006) 1 Regional, Central America–Dominican Republic (1999) Regional

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not add because of rounding and because some area totals include unpublished data. 2 Austria, Denmark, Luxembourg, Norway, and Sweden. 3 Finland, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Malta, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and Yugoslavia. 4 Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Central America, Chile, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela. 5 Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, the Syrian Arab Republic, and, since 1970, the

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.2 95.7 Source: International Financial Statistics . 1 For the nature of the adjustments, see footnote 1. Table 9 . Totals may not add because of rounding and because some totals include unpublished data for component areas. 2 Austria, Denmark, Luxembourg, Norway, and Sweden. 3 Finland, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Malta, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, Yugoslavia, and, beginning in 1972, Romania’s reserve position in the Fund. 4 Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Central America, Chile, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guyana

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, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and Yugoslavia. 3 Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, and, beginning in 1970, Oman and Qatar, and in 1973, the United Arab Emirates. 4 Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Central America, Chile, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and, beginning in 1970, the Bahamas, Barbados, and the Netherlands Antilles. 5 Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, the Syrian Arab Republic, and, beginning in

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Finland, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Malta, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, Yugoslavia, and, beginning in 1972, Romania’s reserve position in the Fund. 4 Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Central America, Chile, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, and, beginning in 1970, SDRs and reserve position in the fund for Barbados. 5 Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, the Syrian Arab Republic, and, beginning in 1965, the People

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, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, Yugoslavia, and, beginning in 1972, Romania’s reserve position in the Fund and holdings of SDRs. 5 Algeria, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, the Libyan Arab Republic, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, and, beginning in 1960, Gabon, in 1965, Bahrain, in 1966, Qatar, in 1970, Oman, and in 1973, the United Arab Emirates. 6 Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Central America, Chile, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Uruguay, and, beginning in 1966

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, Central America, Chile, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and, beginning in 1966, Barbados, and in 1968, the Bahamas and the Netherlands Antilles. 6 Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, the Syrian Arab Republic, and, beginning in 1965, the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen and Bahrain, and in 1973, the Yemen Arab Republic. 7 Afghanistan, Burma, the Republic of China, Fiji, India, Korea, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan

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statistics because, since January 1975, France has adopted a system of valuing gold based on market prices. 3 Austria, Denmark, Luxembourg, Norway, and Sweden. 4 Finland, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Malta, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, Yugoslavia, and, beginning in 1972, Romania’s reserve position in the Fund and holdings of SDRs. 5 Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, the Libyan Arab Republic, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, and, beginning in 1968, Bahrain and, in 1970, Oman. 6 Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Central America, Chile, Colombia, the

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, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Malta, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and Yugoslavia. Also includes unpublished gold reserves including gold to be distributed by the Tripartite Commission for the Restitution of Monetary Gold. 6 Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Central America, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela. 7 Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, the Syrian Arab Republic, the United Arab Republic, and the People’s Democratic