Ms. Victoria J Perry, Ms. Katherine Baer, and Mr. Emil M Sunley
In all of the new countries formed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, other than the Baltics, the value-added taxes (VATs) adopted were “hybrid” VATs that treat CIS trade differently from trade with the rest of the world. This paper inquires whether this is appropriate. The paper concludes that it would be better if all CIS countries applied the destination principle to CIS trade as well as to trade with the rest of the world. The paper addresses the economic, administrative and revenue allocation considerations underlying this decision.
This Selected Issues paper highlights the growth process in Belarus, seeking to identify its main sources and assess its sustainability. It complements the IMF staff report, which placed considerable emphasis on macroeconomic policies. It provides an overview of additional important factors underlying Belarus’s recent economic performance. It presents some further insights on the likely future path of main macroeconomic variables. The analysis suggests that, although several aspects of Belarus’s macroeconomic performance have been unusual, it is clear that domestic policies and favorable exogenous factors have combined to boost growth in recent years.
This paper describes economic developments in the Republic of Moldova during the 1990s. In February 1993, the Executive Board of the IMF approved a purchase of resources equivalent to SDR 13.5 million under the compensatory and contingency financing facility to cover the costs associated with the need to import grains because of the drought and subsequent crop failure in Moldova. A World Bank Emergency Drought Recovery Project in an amount equivalent to US$26 million was also approved in February 1993.
This Statistical Appendix for 2001–05 for the Republic of Belarus highlights the GDP; capital investment by sector; industrial production; inventories; production and consumption of energy; administered prices of household services; tariffs and cost coverage of utility prices for households; average monthly wages; price and wage developments; money income and expenditures of the population; labor market indicators; average monthly employment by sector; profits and losses of enterprises; energy debts of enterprises; tax arrears; government debt; export and import statistics; and other selected statistical data.
This paper reviews the extent to which the Fund’s trade policy advice to the Baltic countries, Russia and other countries of the Former Soviet Union has been implemented. It broadly traces the evolution of trade policies, emphasizing the period from mid-1993 through end-1995, attempting to identify some of the factors affecting uneven progress in trade reform. Based on insights from the public choice literature on endogenous policy theory, the paper makes recommendations for refining Fund advice with a view to facilitating future progress on the trade-policy front.
Contents include: Real sector developments: output trends; sectoral developments; and income, wages, and prices. Public finances; fiscal balance; revenue developments; expenditure developments; social safety net. Financial sector developments; monetary and exchange rate developments; the use of monetary instruments; and commercial banking sector developments and bank supervision. External sector developments; current accounts: capital account and external debt; and trade payments, and exchange system. Structural issues: privatization; price liberalization; structure of government; and other structural issues. Statistical tables.
This paper reviews economic developments in Azerbaijan during the 1990s. In 1992, approximately 70–80 percent of producer and consumer prices were liberalized, and enterprises were allowed greater latitude in their price and wage setting. However, price controls were applied on energy and bread prices, price markups remained controlled, and the price liberalization process was constrained by state procurement of major production items. Although the coverage of the state order system was gradually reduced, it still accounted for most of the production of “strategic goods” at end-1994.
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.