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Mr. Bernardin Akitoby, Mr. Larry Q Cui, Silvia Domit, Jingzhou Meng, Mr. Slavi T Slavov, Mrs. Nujin Suphaphiphat, and Hanqi Zhang
This departmental paper investigates how countries in Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe (CESEE) can improve fiscal transparency, thereby raising government efficiency and reducing corruption vulnerabilities.
Mr. Bernardin Akitoby, Mr. Larry Q Cui, Silvia Domit, Jingzhou Meng, Mr. Slavi T Slavov, Mrs. Nujin Suphaphiphat, and Hanqi Zhang

according to national procurement legislation and the EU’s procurement directives, which reflect core principles of transparency, equal treatment, open competition, and sound procedural management. According to the Open Tender Database, about 85 percent of all tenders in Finland were conducted via open and competitive procedures in 2016–18. Sources: IMF (2015), and Finland’s 2020 budget document. Few CESEE countries reported publishing cost-benefit analyses for major projects before approval ( Figures 17 and 18 ). Only Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, and