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Mr. Gonzalo Salinas and Patrick A. Imam
The growth literature has had problems explaining the "sub-Saharan African growth dummy" in cross-country regressions. Instead of taking the usual approach of focusing on long-run growth and assuming that sub-Saharan countries have homogenous parameters in growth regressions, we concentrate our analysis on episodes of growth turnarounds (identifying growth accelerations, decelerations, and collapses) and use only West African countries in our sample. The driving force of growth turnarounds are estimated by analyzing external shocks, political and institutional changes, economic reforms, and indicators particularly relevant to the region. Using probits for a group of 22 Western African economies for the period 1960-2006, we find that growth accelerations are most clearly associated with external shocks, economic liberalization, political stability, and closeness to the coast; decelerations occurred during short-lived regimes and when corruption indices weakened; and collapses are linked to external shocks, falling domestic credit, and proximity to the coast. We then identify policy implications.
Mr. Gonzalo Salinas and Patrick A. Imam

agents ( Collier and Gunning, 1999 ). Those studies that concluded that the SSA dummy is insignificant after adjusting for factors such as geography, neighborhood effect, tropical diseases, etc., have often been refuted for lack of robustness (see Collier and Gunning, 1999 for a summary). In our opinion the literature has not been able to identify the cause of Barro’s enigma in part because most studies suffer from at least four major flaws. First, studies using Barro-type growth regressions (regressing income growth on such macroeconomic variables as capital

Mr. A. E. Wayne Mitchell, Ann Marie Wickham, and Mr. Manuel Rosales Torres

spending to appropriate levels could improve the productivity and efficiency of infrastructure ( World Bank, 1994 and Rioja, 2003a and 2003b ). Additionally, we assess the effects of maintenance expenditure on economic growth, using the standard Barro-type growth regression ( Mankiw, Romer and Weil, 1992 ; Barro and Sala-i-Martin, 1995). The results indicate the existence of a long run cointegrating relationship between maintenance expenditure and real GDP but no short-run relationship. This is likely because government spending to maintain public infrastructure

Mr. A. E. Wayne Mitchell, Ann Marie Wickham, and Mr. Manuel Rosales Torres
The quality and stock of infrastructure vary widely across countries of the Eastern Carribbean Currency Union and are inadequate to achieve the desired higher growth and social development. Given relatively low investment rates in the region, one solution is to invest more. However this paper shows that governments can also narrow their infrastructure and service gaps significantly by improving expenditure efficiency and strengthening public investment management systems.