Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for :

  • "Agriculture Feminization" x
Clear All
Ms. Christine Dieterich, Anni Huang, and Mr. Alun H. Thomas
As labor market data is scarce in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), this paper uses household survey data to analyze the determinants of the gender gap in the labor market and its welfare implications for five SSA countries in multinomial logit models with propensity score matching method. The analysis confirms that education opens up opportunities for women to escape agricultural feminization and engage in formal wage employment, but these opportunities diminish when women marry—a disadvantage increasingly relevant when countries develop and urbanization progresses. Opening a household enterprise offers women an alternative avenue to escape low-paid jobs in agriculture, but the increase in per capita income is lower than male-owned household enterprises. These findings underline that improving women’s education needs to be supported by measures to allow married women to keep their jobs in the wage sector.
Ms. Christine Dieterich, Anni Huang, and Mr. Alun H. Thomas

and lower-middle income countries, reflecting the need for women to work to support themselves and their families. In these circumstances, gender inequality mainly materializes in unequal access to wage employment, which becomes more prominent as the share of wage employment rises when countries advance to lower-middle income status. Here are the main features of the employment structure: Agricultural feminization is prevalent among SSA low income countries . Most of the residents in low income countries still live in rural areas and agriculture hires more than

Ms. Christine Dieterich, Anni Huang, and Mr. Alun H. Thomas

Front Matter Page African Department Contents ABSTRACT I. INTRODUCTION II. LITERATURE REVIEW III. LOW/LOWER MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES AGRICULTURE FEMINIZATION AND FEMALE INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT A. Education Determines Employment B. Women’s Marriage Cancels out Education Effect C. Urbanization and Job Opportunity D. Regression Analysis and Welfare Implication IV. UPPER MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES: LOW FEMALE LABOR PARTICIPATION RATE AND HIGH FEMALE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE V. POLICY IMPLICATIONS REFERENCES FIGURES Figure 1. Employment

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

social norms regarding household and care responsibilities), could help women to escape agricultural feminization. Figure 5 . Economic Participation Wage and Earnings Gaps 8. Across countries, gender wage gaps generally reflect several interrelated factors , including occupational segregation, weak labor laws, social norms, implicit bias, and discrimination. Occupational segregation has an indirect implication in that women will tend to be over-represented in particular occupations. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, gender pay gaps are broadly

Cristina Kadama, Ms. Lisa L Kolovich, Samson Kwalingana, Ms. Monique Newiak, Caroline Ntumwa, and Francine Nyankiye

( Figure 2.12 )—similar to many sub-Saharan African and low-income countries. Because the agricultural sector’s employment share tends to decrease as education levels rise, better access to quality education, combined with other measures (such as changing social norms regarding household and care responsibilities), could help women escape “agricultural feminization.” Figure 2.12. Economic Participation Note: EAC = East African Community. Across countries, gender wage gaps generally reflect several interrelated factors, including occupational segregation, weak

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This Selected Issues paper analyzes investment strategy to foster structural transformation in Rwanda. Over the past 15 years, Rwanda has transformed its economy by moving workers out of agriculture into mostly services and some industry. This has been accomplished through strong public investment flows and efficient public investment management. Going forward, the challenge is whether the private sector can complement the infrastructure assets put in place by the public sector and maintain economic momentum. It will also require continued effort by the government in raising education standards, better matching qualifications offered to students to those most in demand by employers, and lowering electricity and transportation costs.