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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

a ratio of 34 pupils for each teacher, the number of teachers will have to increase by 4,130 (to 12,450) by 2010. At the same time, 5,650 more teachers will be needed to replace those who succumb to AIDS. The total cost of training additional teachers to replace the AIDS victims will amount to $17 million, or $1.5 million a year. Additionally, the Ministry estimates the costs of sick leave and death benefits, including pensions for surviving dependents, at an average total of $7.1 million a year until 2010. Thus, HIV/AIDS is associated with an additional annual

Mr. Markus Haacker
The paper provides an analysis of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the health sector, public education, the supply of labor and the returns to training in nine Southern African countries. Drawing on the preceding sections, it assesses the impact of HIV/AIDS on per capita income in a neoclassical growth framework. HIV/AIDS affects per capita income mainly through its impact of human capital, as measured by the supply of experienced workers. Other factors include the impact on capital accumulation, on education, and on total factor productivity.
Mr. Markus Haacker

teachers need to be trained to maintain these latest available pupil-teacher ratios. Table 6. The impact of HIV/AIDS on the education sector Pupil-teacher ratios (1996) Total number of pupils (000s) Required teacher training (total) Training to replace AIDS victims AIDS deaths, % of total training primary secondary 2000 2010 2000 2010 2000 2010 2000 2010 Botswana 25 17 452 437 1,380 1,569 543 1,231 39.4 78.5 Lesotho 47 24 471 502 646 802 92 371 14.2 46

Mr. Markus Haacker and Mr. Gonzalo Salinas

funeral expenses. Beyond the immediate effects on households, we analyze the impact on poverty outcomes and income distribution of the mechanism through which employment vacated by AIDS victims is filled, and the social insurance mechanisms to support destitute households. Finally, we explore various factors that have a bearing on our results and contribute to different outcomes across countries, such as the demographic structure and the distribution of HIV prevalence rates across population groups in the sample countries. An initial effort in this direction was

International Monetary Fund
The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) assesses the main exogenous and endogenous risks affecting the implementation of the strategy, including terms-of-trade shocks and absorptive capacity weaknesses. The medium-term expenditure framework identifies the priorities and needs of the country to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The PRSP provides extensive sensitivity analysis of the impact of the main exogenous risks. The effective channeling of the resources freed from debt relief in favor of growth-enhancing and social development programs constitute a critical challenge for the government.
International Monetary Fund

the renewed public attention to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, which focuses on both prevention and treatment programs. The strategy is based on a multisectoral, decentralized approach with enhanced partnership with civil society. The staffs note, however, that (i) the strategy could be complemented with more specific measures focusing on the families of HIV/AIDS victims, especially orphans; and (ii) the PRSP does not adequately address health poverty issues in the most deprived areas. 23. The strategy for the rural sector and forestry draws from the government

Mr. Markus Haacker and Mr. Gonzalo Salinas
Using available data on the distribution of HIV/AIDS prevalence across population groups for four sub-Saharan African countries and transposing this information to household income and expenditure surveys, we simulate the impact of HIV/AIDS on poverty and inequality. We find that the epidemic lowers average income and increases poverty, and that the jump in poverty is larger than expected from the fall in average income. This disproportionate increase in poverty reflects the large share of the population living on the threshold of poverty and the higher HIV prevalence rates in those segments of the population.
International Monetary Fund

life of people living with HIV/AIDS and Orphans of AIDS victims. The specific interventions by the Ghana Aids Commission in 2003 were as follows: Information, Education and Communication Advocacy Peer Education Voluntary Counselling and Testing Capacity Building for CSO Care and support for PLWHAs Training and technical support for beneficiary groups The Ministry of Health in collaboration with the Ghana AIDS Commission and other civil society organisations mounted programmes during the year to increase awareness of the risk of the epidemic in the

Mr. Markus Haacker

measures succeed at keeping the number of new infections low. 13 At the same time, the option of receiving treatment is a major incentive for AIDS victims to seek counseling and testing. Some sense of the range of national responses can be gleaned from countries’ announced plans for their general response to HIV/AIDS. For example, Botswana’s National Strategic Framework for HIV/AIDS 2003–09 is at once a national plan and a means of engaging government ministries and regional entities in the national response, requiring each to formulate its own response to HIV/AIDS (see