This paper analyzes the macroeconomics of HIV/AIDS. The paper highlights that the mortality and morbidity associated with AIDS make it unlike most other types of sickness and disease. The paper describes the most common approaches used in accounting for growth in the context of an HIV/AIDS epidemic. The impact of HIV/AIDS on education and the accumulation of human capital is discussed. The paper also discusses the impact of HIV/AIDS on the public sector, and elaborates certain demographic events specific to the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
Using available data on the distribution of HIV/AIDS prevalence across population groups for four sub-Saharan African countries and transposing this information to household income and expenditure surveys, we simulate the impact of HIV/AIDS on poverty and inequality. We find that the epidemic lowers average income and increases poverty, and that the jump in poverty is larger than expected from the fall in average income. This disproportionate increase in poverty reflects the large share of the population living on the threshold of poverty and the higher HIV prevalence rates in those segments of the population.
The Poverty Reduction Action Plan (PARP) 2011–14 is the medium-term strategy of the Government of Mozambique for putting into operation the Five-Year Government Program (2010–14). This medium-term instrument is part of the National Planning System (SNP) and is aligned with the vision of Agenda 2025. To achieve the objective of inclusive economic growth for reducing poverty, the government has defined general objectives, to which government efforts will be directed. The PARP is a dynamic and flexible instrument.
This Selected Issues paper reviews the status and potential impacts of HIV/AIDS in South Africa. It draws on demographic projections and economic studies, and summarizes the official policy response and actions taken by the nongovernmental and business communities. It presents some stylized facts on property price developments in South Africa, and reviews briefly the link between asset price developments and economic activity. It also looks at the ability of policymakers to identify asset price booms.
In South Africa, long-term insurers experienced some strains during the financial crisis, but there were no crisis-related failures. The capital markets suffered sharp declines but no systemic failures. The three standards assessments have found the regulatory system fundamentally sound. The National Treasury has authority to set and oversee national regulatory policy. Banking supervision is effective and has contributed to reducing the impact on the financial sector of the global financial crisis. Insurance regulation is sound and while the assessment identifies areas for development, these are being addressed.
Insurance regulation in South Africa is sound and takes a thorough approach to regulation, recognizes the scale and development of the market, and the need for effective market conduct as prudential regulation. There are particular challenges in improving standards of market conduct, in both long-term and short-term insurance. The Financial Services Board is appropriately taking the long view, and is committing itself to major overhauls both of financial requirements and on market conduct. It will require increased resources, including specialist skills, to make these projects a success.
.S. Census Bureau in the HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data Base since 1987 provide some picture of the state of the epidemics in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Eastern Europe. The Census Bureau conducts further analysis of the demographic effects through estimates of AIDSmortality for countries in the developing world where the epidemics have reached a significant level. These estimates are incorporated into population projections for 56 countries to give a picture of the effect of AIDSmortality on population characteristics (see Box 1.1 for a description of
Botswana’s 2003 Article IV Consultation reports that Botswana’s core economic database is largely adequate for surveillance, although the quality and timeliness of national accounts and key trade data need to be improved. Financial sector reforms, including a partial privatization of the civil service pension scheme, are an important part of the economic strategy. The increased risk associated with these reforms should be addressed through enhanced supervision of the sector. The authorities are making efforts to strengthen monetary management.
This Selected Issues paper analyzes unemployment and education in Namibia. Using the Afrobarometer Project survey data, the paper develops some stylized facts about the Namibian labor market, focusing on the link between education, earnings, and unemployment. The paper finds that unemployment probabilities depend on the level of education. The paper also describes the main features of poverty in Namibia and assesses the appropriateness of current as well as potential policies to alleviate poverty and reduce income inequality over time.