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International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

The box looks into the driving forces of the middle class’ bulges. Identifying these forces would help to assess what policies help the middle class to grow and contribute more to the development process. Cross country experiences distinguish the following factors: (i) economic growth and income distribution; (ii) well-paid jobs and education attainment; and (iii) mobility and vulnerability . A. Economic Growth and Income Distribution 1. Sustaining Economic Growth . Sustained economic growth tends to lift large numbers of people out of poverty

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

, Livestock, Onions and Rural Wages, 2005-09 and 2009-10 DRIVING FACTORS OF MIDDLE CLASS’ BULGE: A CROSS-COUNTRY VIEW A. Economic Growth and Income Distribution B. Jobs and Education FINANCIAL INCLUSION, ACCESSIBILITY, AND DEVELOPMENT A. Theoretical Framework B. Stylized Facts C. Policy Recommendations FIGURES 1. Financial Intermediation and Development, 1988-2014 2. SSA vs. Niger: Financial Inclusion Indicators, 2011 3. Bank Net Interest Margin and Overhead Costs, 2004-11 TABLES 1. Cross-Country Comparison of Selected Doing Business Indicators

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This Selected Issues paper presents an external stability assessment on Niger. Niger’s current account balance deteriorated in 2013, mostly on account of higher food and capital goods imports. The deficit is expected to widen further in 2014–15, mainly driven by large investment in the extractive industry and basic infrastructure. The current account is projected to gradually improve from 2016 as important projects in infrastructure will come to end, the oil and mining sectors come on stream and public and private savings increase. Although aid and foreign direct investments are the main sources of external financing, external borrowing–mainly on concessional terms–has increased significantly.