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Mr. Koshy Mathai, Mr. Christoph Duenwald, Ms. Anastasia Guscina, Rayah Al-Farah, Mr. Hatim Bukhari, Mr. Atif Chaudry, Moataz El-Said, Fozan Fareed, Mrs. Kerstin Gerling, Nghia-Piotr Le, Mr. Franto Ricka, Mr. Cesar Serra, Tetyana Sydorenko, Mr. Sébastien Walker, and Mr. Mohammed Zaher

Figure 17. Fiscal Space and COVID-19 Fiscal Cost, 2019–20 Figure 18. Fiscal Balance, Debt, and Estimated Cost of COVID-19 Response Figure 19. Efficiency Frontiers in Nonparametric Approach Figure 20. Output Efficiency Scores from Nonparametric Approach Figure 21. Spending Efficiency—Parametric and Nonparametric Approaches Figure 22. Socioeconomic Outcomes under Higher Efficiency Figure 23. Health Care Spending Adequacy and Efficiency Figure 24. Increase in Life Expectancy if COVID-19 Health Spending Is Incorporated into Permanent Government Expenditure

Mr. Koshy Mathai, Mr. Christoph Duenwald, Ms. Anastasia Guscina, Rayah Al-Farah, Mr. Hatim Bukhari, Mr. Atif Chaudry, Moataz El-Said, Fozan Fareed, Mrs. Kerstin Gerling, Nghia-Piotr Le, Mr. Franto Ricka, Mr. Cesar Serra, Tetyana Sydorenko, Mr. Sébastien Walker, and Mr. Mohammed Zaher

prevention of chronic illnesses is a more efficient way to spend fiscal resources, especially when compared to costly subsidies for medical treatment abroad. Investing in the human resources for primary health care will also offer a gender dividend, given that many primary health care workers in the region tend to be female. Figure 23. Health Care Spending Adequacy and Efficiency (2018 or latest value available) Sources: World Development Indicators; and IMF staff calculations. Note: Data labels use International Organization for Standardization (ISO) country

Mr. Koshy Mathai, Mr. Christoph Duenwald, Ms. Anastasia Guscina, Rayah Al-Farah, Mr. Hatim Bukhari, Mr. Atif Chaudry, Moataz El-Said, Fozan Fareed, Mrs. Kerstin Gerling, Nghia-Piotr Le, Mr. Franto Ricka, Mr. Cesar Serra, Tetyana Sydorenko, Mr. Sébastien Walker, and Mr. Mohammed Zaher
This paper examines the role of social spending in improving socioeconomic outcomes in the Middle East and Central Asia. In particular, it addresses the following questions: (1) how large is social spending across the region? (2) how do countries in the region fare on socioeconomic outcomes? (3) how important is social spending as a determinant of these outcomes? and (4) how efficient is social spending in the region?
Mr. Koshy Mathai, Mr. Christoph Duenwald, Ms. Anastasia Guscina, Rayah Al-Farah, Mr. Hatim Bukhari, Mr. Atif Chaudry, Moataz El-Said, Fozan Fareed, Mrs. Kerstin Gerling, Nghia-Piotr Le, Mr. Franto Ricka, Mr. Cesar Serra, Tetyana Sydorenko, Mr. Sébastien Walker, and Mr. Mohammed Zaher