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Mr. Zhongxia Jin, Haobin Wang, and Yue Zhao
Based on VAR analyses across 26 countries, we show that, although foreign exchange intervention (FXI) is effective in stabilizing the nominal exchange rate in the short run, its impacts on the real exchange rate are less significant: Limitations on nominal exchange rate flexibility may induce adjustments to the real exchange rate through domestic prices. We find that countries that intervene more heavily in response to external shocks experience greater general and asset price volatility, which is not conducive to countering the impact of external shocks. We show that China’s macroeconomic responses to external shocks are broadly consistent with international experiences among intervening countries. The simple methodological framework adopted in this paper is meant to examine a broad set of macroeconomic variables and bears limitations; our findings serve to motivate more structural analysis on FXI’s macroeconomic impacts going forward.
Mr. Zhongxia Jin, Haobin Wang, and Yue Zhao

Based on VAR analyses across 26 countries, we show that, although foreign exchange intervention (FXI) is effective in stabilizing the nominal exchange rate in the short run, its impacts on the real exchange rate are less significant: Limitations on nominal exchange rate flexibility may induce adjustments to the real exchange rate through domestic prices. We find that countries that intervene more heavily in response to external shocks experience greater general and asset price volatility, which is not conducive to countering the impact of external shocks. We show that China’s macroeconomic responses to external shocks are broadly consistent with international experiences among intervening countries. The simple methodological framework adopted in this paper is meant to examine a broad set of macroeconomic variables and bears limitations; our findings serve to motivate more structural analysis on FXI’s macroeconomic impacts going forward.

Mr. Zhongxia Jin, Yue Zhao, and Haobin Wang
During China’s transition toward a more flexible exchange rate, it is essential to further develop its foreign exchange (FX) derivatives markets to meet the growing hedging needs associated with greater exchange rate fluctuations. Although over-the-counter (OTC) FX derivatives markets already exist in China, it lacks a FX futures market that offers critical complementarities. With standardized products, greater transparency and centralized oversight, a FX futures market can better satisfy the hedging needs of small and medium-sized enterprises and enhance regulatory efficiency. To address concerns regarding whether FX futures market will amplify the volatility of spot exchange rates, this paper analyzes the impact of establishing FX futures markets on spot market volatility using data from major emerging market economies. The result shows that FX futures market is not empirically associated with an increase in spot market volatility; in some cases, it is even associated with a decrease in spot market volatility. This paper further suggests that for a well-functioning FX futures market to be established, it is essential for China to substitute the inefficient documentation requirement of underlying exposures with a new set of market-oriented measures for the purpose of prudent regulation.
Mr. Zhongxia Jin, Yue Zhao, and Haobin Wang
Mr. Zhongxia Jin, Yue Zhao, and Haobin Wang

During China’s transition toward a more flexible exchange rate, it is essential to further develop its foreign exchange (FX) derivatives markets to meet the growing hedging needs associated with greater exchange rate fluctuations. Although over-the-counter (OTC) FX derivatives markets already exist in China, it lacks a FX futures market that offers critical complementarities. With standardized products, greater transparency and centralized oversight, a FX futures market can better satisfy the hedging needs of small and medium-sized enterprises and enhance regulatory efficiency. To address concerns regarding whether FX futures market will amplify the volatility of spot exchange rates, this paper analyzes the impact of establishing FX futures markets on spot market volatility using data from major emerging market economies. The result shows that FX futures market is not empirically associated with an increase in spot market volatility; in some cases, it is even associated with a decrease in spot market volatility. This paper further suggests that for a well-functioning FX futures market to be established, it is essential for China to substitute the inefficient documentation requirement of underlying exposures with a new set of market-oriented measures for the purpose of prudent regulation.