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Fabio Di Vittorio, Delong Li, and Hanlei Yun
The paper focuses on the impact of diversification on bank performance and how consolidation through mergers and acquisitions (M&A) affects the banking sector’s stability in the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU). The paper finds that a lower level of loan portfolio diversification explains higher non-performing loans and earnings volatility of indigenous banks, as compared to foreign competitors in the ECCU. We then simulate bank mergers both within and across ECCU countries by combining individual banks’ balance sheets. The simulation shows that a typical indigenous bank could better diversify against its idiosyncratic risk by merging with other banks across the border. In addition, we point out that M&A, leading to a more asymmetric banking sector, may increase systemic risk.
Fabio Di Vittorio, Delong Li, and Hanlei Yun

The paper focuses on the impact of diversification on bank performance and how consolidation through mergers and acquisitions (M&A) affects the banking sector’s stability in the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU). The paper finds that a lower level of loan portfolio diversification explains higher non-performing loans and earnings volatility of indigenous banks, as compared to foreign competitors in the ECCU. We then simulate bank mergers both within and across ECCU countries by combining individual banks’ balance sheets. The simulation shows that a typical indigenous bank could better diversify against its idiosyncratic risk by merging with other banks across the border. In addition, we point out that M&A, leading to a more asymmetric banking sector, may increase systemic risk.

Fabio Di Vittorio, Delong Li, and Hanlei Yun
Valentina Flamini, Pierluigi Bologna, Fabio Di Vittorio, and Rasool Zandvakil

Abstract

The material included in this chapter is largely drawn from Dabla-Norris and others (2015) and Heng and others (2016).

Valentina Flamini, Pierluigi Bologna, Fabio Di Vittorio, and Rasool Zandvakil
Credit is key to support healthy and sustainable economic growth but excess aggregate credit growth can signal the build-up of imbalances and lead to systemic financial crisis. Hence, monitoring the credit cycle is key to identifying vulnerabilities, particularly in emerging markets, which tend to be more exposed to sudden external shocks and reversal in capital flows. We estimate the credit cycle in Central America, Panama, and the Dominican Republic and find that the creadit gap is a powerful predictor of systemic vulnerability in the region. We simulate the activation of the Basel III countercyclical capital buffers and discuss the macroprudential policy implications of the results, arguing that countercyclical macroprudential policies based on the credit gap could prove useful to enhance the resilience of the region’s financial sector but the activation of macroprudential instruments should also be informed by the development of other macrofinancial variables and by expert judgment.
Valentina Flamini, Pierluigi Bologna, Fabio Di Vittorio, and Rasool Zandvakil

Credit is key to support healthy and sustainable economic growth but excess aggregate credit growth can signal the build-up of imbalances and lead to systemic financial crisis. Hence, monitoring the credit cycle is key to identifying vulnerabilities, particularly in emerging markets, which tend to be more exposed to sudden external shocks and reversal in capital flows. We estimate the credit cycle in Central America, Panama, and the Dominican Republic and find that the creadit gap is a powerful predictor of systemic vulnerability in the region. We simulate the activation of the Basel III countercyclical capital buffers and discuss the macroprudential policy implications of the results, arguing that countercyclical macroprudential policies based on the credit gap could prove useful to enhance the resilience of the region’s financial sector but the activation of macroprudential instruments should also be informed by the development of other macrofinancial variables and by expert judgment.

Valentina Flamini, Pierluigi Bologna, Fabio Di Vittorio, and Rasool Zandvakil
Ding Ding, Fabio Di Vittorio, Ana Lariau, and Yue Zhou

Over the last decade China’s investment in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has increased substantially in volume and become more diversified from natural resources to other industries. Using cross-border mergers and acquisitions data, we demonstrate that since mid-2010s China’s overseas investment has tilted toward sectors where China has a comparative advantage in the global markets, a trend similar to that of other major foreign direct investment (FDI) source countries. Moreover, China’s rising overseas investment can be linked to the rebalancing of Chinese economy, and LAC stands to benefit from its complementarity vis-à-vis China in sectors where the rising Chinese overseas investment can be met with LAC’s own investment gaps. The COVID-19 pandemic could have a long-lasting impact on global value chains and FDI flows, which poses both challenges and opportunities to LAC in attracting FDI, including from China, to support the region’s long-run economic development.

Ding Ding, Fabio Di Vittorio, Ana Lariau, and Yue Zhou
Over the last decade China’s investment in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has increased substantially in volume and become more diversified from natural resources to other industries. Using cross-border mergers and acquisitions data, we demonstrate that since mid-2010s China’s overseas investment has tilted toward sectors where China has a comparative advantage in the global markets, a trend similar to that of other major foreign direct investment (FDI) source countries. Moreover, China’s rising overseas investment can be linked to the rebalancing of Chinese economy, and LAC stands to benefit from its complementarity vis-à-vis China in sectors where the rising Chinese overseas investment can be met with LAC’s own investment gaps. The COVID-19 pandemic could have a long-lasting impact on global value chains and FDI flows, which poses both challenges and opportunities to LAC in attracting FDI, including from China, to support the region’s long-run economic development.
Ding Ding, Fabio Di Vittorio, Ana Lariau, and Yue Zhou