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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
Mexico’s financial system is digitalizing rapidly, increasing exposure to cyber risk. As in other jurisdictions, internet and mobile banking users in Mexico have increased substantially, but cyber incidents have also surged in recent years. The tight interdependencies within its financial system, and beyond, make Mexico vulnerable to evolving cyber threats. Thus, the Financial System Stability Council (CESF) has recognized cyber as a risk with potential to impact financial stability.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Mexico’s financial system is digitalizing rapidly, increasing exposure to cyber risk. As in other jurisdictions, internet and mobile banking users in Mexico have increased substantially, but cyber incidents have also surged in recent years. The tight interdependencies within its financial system, and beyond, make Mexico vulnerable to evolving cyber threats. Thus, the Financial System Stability Council (CESF) has recognized cyber as a risk with potential to impact financial stability.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
Ireland’s fintech sector is growing in importance through the entry of innovative new players and digital transformation of incumbents’ business models and products. The Irish Government has adopted an action plan for the development of Ireland’s international financial services sector that includes several initiatives of relevance to fintech. Meanwhile, the Central Bank of Ireland (the Central Bank), the integrated financial services regulator, engages with new entrants with a view to securing consumer interests and safeguarding the resilience of the financial system, thereby harnessing the benefits of fintech while managing additional risks it may generate. The largest sub-sector is represented by payment and e-money institutions (PIEMIs). Recent data show most Irish adults are using digital payments multiple times a week, while 24 percent use their mobile phone for contactless payments. Ownership of crypto-assets is also on the rise, especially among young adults. Beyond payments and crypto-assets, fintech activities are developing on a smaller scale in areas such as insurance and investment management. Meanwhile, the importance of market support firms, including cloud service providers (CSPs), continues to grow.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
Cybersecurity risk continues to grow both in complexity and severity and is a function of an increasingly open and interconnected cyber and financial ecosystem. The South African financial system has a long history of incorporating technology and as for many financial systems across the globe, digitalization has become a strategic priority. For risk management to keep pace with the dynamic nature of cyber threats and threat agents, systemically important financial institutions (SIFIs) have made substantial investments in cyber resilience programs (e.g., establishing cyber strategies, frameworks, and governance structures). Consistent with many jurisdictions, and partly a result of widespread remote working arrangements implemented in response to the global pandemic, cybersecurity threats to financial stability increased. However, high standards of risk management meant threats did not materialize into significant losses and/or disruptions.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The United Kingdom faces significant money laundering threats from foreign criminal proceeds, owing to its status as a global financial center, but the authorities have a strong understanding of these risks. The authorities estimated the realistic possibility of hundreds of billions of pounds of illicit proceeds being laundered in their jurisdiction. The money laundering risks facing the United Kingdom include illicit proceeds from foreign crimes such as transnational organized crime, overseas corruption, and tax crimes. Financial services, trust, and company service providers (TCSPs), accountancy and legal sectors are high-risk for money laundering, with also significant emerging risks coming from cryptoassets. Some Crown Dependencies (CDs) and British Overseas Territories (BOTs) have featured in U.K. money laundering investigations. Brexit and COVID pandemic have an impact upon the money laundering risks in the United Kingdom. The authorities nevertheless have demonstrated a deep and robust experience in assessing and understanding their ML/TF risks. Leveraging technology tools such as big data and machine learning to analyze cross-border payments may add further dimension to their risk assessments. This technical note (TN) will focus on key aspects of the United Kingdom’s anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) regime: risk-based AML/CFT supervision, entity transparency and international cooperation.
Mr. Tanai Khiaonarong, Mr. Harry Leinonen, and Ryan Rizaldy
Major operational incidents in payment systems suggest the need to improve their resiliency. Meanwhile, as payment infrastructures become more digitalized, integrated, and interdependent, they require an even higher degree of resilience. Moreover, risks that could trigger major disruptions have become more acute given the rise in power outages, cyber incidents, and natural disasters. International experiences suggest the need to strengthen reliability objectives, redundancies, assessment of critical service providers, endpoint security, and alternative arrangements
Mr. Tanai Khiaonarong, Mr. Harry Leinonen, and Ryan Rizaldy

Major operational incidents in payment systems suggest the need to improve their resiliency. Meanwhile, as payment infrastructures become more digitalized, integrated, and interdependent, they require an even higher degree of resilience. Moreover, risks that could trigger major disruptions have become more acute given the rise in power outages, cyber incidents, and natural disasters. International experiences suggest the need to strengthen reliability objectives, redundancies, assessment of critical service providers, endpoint security, and alternative arrangements

Mr. Ashraf Khan and Majid Malaika

Based on technical assistance to central banks by the IMF’s Monetary and Capital Markets Department and Information Technology Department, this paper examines fintech and the related area of cybersecurity from the perspective of central bank risk management. The paper draws on findings from the IMF Article IV Database, selected FSAP and country cases, and gives examples of central bank risks related to fintech and cybersecurity. The paper highlights that fintech- and cybersecurity-related risks for central banks should be addressed by operationalizing sound internal risk management by establishing and strengthening an integrated risk management approach throughout the organization, including a dedicated risk management unit, ongoing sensitizing and training of Board members and staff, clear reporting lines, assessing cyber resilience and security posture, and tying risk management into strategic planning.. Given the fast-evolving nature of such risks, central banks could make use of timely and regular inputs from external experts.

Mr. Ashraf Khan and Majid Malaika
Based on technical assistance to central banks by the IMF’s Monetary and Capital Markets Department and Information Technology Department, this paper examines fintech and the related area of cybersecurity from the perspective of central bank risk management. The paper draws on findings from the IMF Article IV Database, selected FSAP and country cases, and gives examples of central bank risks related to fintech and cybersecurity. The paper highlights that fintech- and cybersecurity-related risks for central banks should be addressed by operationalizing sound internal risk management by establishing and strengthening an integrated risk management approach throughout the organization, including a dedicated risk management unit, ongoing sensitizing and training of Board members and staff, clear reporting lines, assessing cyber resilience and security posture, and tying risk management into strategic planning.. Given the fast-evolving nature of such risks, central banks could make use of timely and regular inputs from external experts.